The involuntary actions are controlled by autonomic nervous system (ANS); these functions comprise actions carried out by intestines, heart, glands, which are not under our direct control or those which cannot be…
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It answers to stress by augmenting the heart rate and flow of blood to the muscles. It encompasses quick response and hence concerned with “fight or flight”.
Parasympathetic nervous system, encompass cranial nerves (nerves of brain) and also the lower spinal nerves i.e. nerves of sacral region. Action of this system counteracts the sympathetic actions by increasing digestive secretions and decreasing the heartbeat. It is concerned with “rest and digest”.
It is evident that ANS encompass afferent pathways that includes information from the viscera and brain and hence maintains the homeostasis. It has both sensory and motor neurons to carry the information to and from the brain and spinal cord.
An action potential along the axon is dependent on influx of sodium ions and efflux of potassium ions. The phases of action potential are: rising phase- In the resting state the inside of the neuronal cell is polarized (-70mv) as compared to its outside charge. Therefore, it is polarized.
Excitatory neurotransmitters like aspartate and glutamate released from their pre-synaptic neurons attach to post-synaptic dendrites, sodium channels open up leading to influx of positively charged sodium ion gradually more and more sodium ion channel open up resulting in positive charge inside the cell (+40mv inside cell) and the cell is said to be depolarized.
Falling phase- sodium ion channels are closed and potassium ion channels open up as a result potassium being an intracellular ion moves out through these channels and by this process there is a net loss of positive charge as potassium is positively charged ion.
Myelinated axons prevent the back diffusion of ions to outer space and ensure a fast and rapid conduction of action potentials. Myelinated neurons contains nodes of Ranvier, through this action potential jumps, this is called salutatory conduction.
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Cognitive psychology focuses on the thought process of human beings in a bid to understanding their behaviour. This is quite like the study of the ego in the psychodynamic psychology. This is the part of the mental structure that influences the thought process and also keeps tabs on memories and other stimuli that are gotten from the external environment.
The interplay between nature and nurture results in traits and behaviors. The interplay between heredity and environment nurtures human development in every stage. The different genes inherent in humans interact with experience, which shape human traits and behaviors.
The boy was playing with his little sister. The boy was in the mood of fun and enjoyment. The boy was playing his mother assuming his sister to be his daughter. The girl asked the boy for toffee, but he told her to do homework instead in a strict tone like that of his mother.
No one remembers the same events the same way. Different people focus on different details of the event than others, there are emotional variables, physiological variables, as well as, unconscious responses by the brain that can limit, effect, or completely distort anyone’s memories.
To execute these aims of psychology, an approach has to be adopted, described by Kalat (2008) as a perspective involving assumptions on human behaviour: their functioning, the aspects worth of study and the appropriate research methods in undertaking the study.
man questioning crossed the threshold of everything that was based on God and covered with the aura of mysticism, and entered the realms of naturalism. As psychology developed further and took a more definite form it tried to shed its abstract nature and appeared to take a more
The scientific study requires theoretical frameworks, testable hypotheses and empirical evidence.
Reliability refers to a measure’s ability to capture an individual’s true score. That is, to distinguish accurately one person from another. Reliability is about the