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Human growth and development - Assignment Example

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The major difference between Freud and Eriksons perspectives of development is that where Freud believes many traits are inherent and with a person at birth, Erikson believes it is society and surroundings that shape a person. Freuds Psycho sexual Stages of development…
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1. The major difference between Freud and Eriksons perspectives of development is that where Freud believes many traits are inherent and with a person at birth, Erikson believes it is society and surroundings that shape a person. Freuds Psycho sexual Stages of development consist of the Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital Stages. All of these stages focus on physical pleasure and how the development of recognizing this pleasure shapes cognitive development. In the Oral stage children discover pleasure through oral sensations like eating and chewing. The following stages focus on other body sensations as the child becomes more and more aware if the body and senses. Erikson believes children go through 4 Psychosocial Stages: Basic Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame, Initiative vs. Guilt, and Industry vs. Inferiority. Each of these stages are “defined by a conflict involving the childs relationship with the environment. The particular conflicts a child faces and the way in which they respond t these conflicts is what Erikson believes shapes their personality.
2. Piagets theory of cognitive development maintains that children are active participants in their own cognitive development. Piagets theory begins with basic schemas, “cognitive structures or concepts used to identify and interpret objects, events and other information in the environment” (Wood 54). Assimilation is the term Piaget uses to describe the way in which children try to fit these new things into their existing schemas. Not everything can be assimilated into existing schemas, and in these cases children will learn to use Accommodation. “In accommodation, existing schemas are modified or new schemas are created to process new information” (Wood 55). Transition from stage to stage is not abrupt, but gradual with the first stage being the Sensorimotor stage. In this stage, infant gain an understanding of the world through their senses and their object permanence is developed in which children realize that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight. The Preoperational stage occurs next when the child is between 2 and 7 years of age. “Here children become increasingly able to represent objects and events mentally with words and images” (Wood 56). At this stage children will be able to imitate the behavior of a person who who is no longer in sight through deferred imitation. Between the ages 7 and 12, the Concrete Operations stage causes thinking to be “less egocentric and they come to realize that people have thoughts and feelings different from their own” (Wood 56). Lastly, the Formal Operations stage at 12 and up, adolescents can “apply reversibility and conservation to abstract, verbal, hypothetical situations” (Wood 56), and they become interested in the world of ideas and create theories of their own.
3. Kohlberg followed Piagets work of moral development, but he believed that moral maturity took much longer than what Piaget originally proposed. He identified 6 stages of development and grouped them into 3 levels. The Preconventional level where “thoughts are formed by individual perspective” (Wood 82). The 2nd level is when children learn the rules of reciprocity and that idea that if they give they will get. Finally, the 3rd level is the Post Conventional which is based on principles using a “prior to society” (Wood 82) perspective. This stage is an accumulation of the childs previous experiences. The child then uses these experiences to make moral decisions, and in the process these decisions will shape his personality. Kohlberg insists that these stages take much longer than the stages that Piaget had initially introduced and believes that his own 3 levels are a more accurate outline of what it means to be developmentally morally mature.
Works Cited

1. Wood, Samuel. The World of Psychology: 4th Ed. A Pearson Education Company. Boston. 2002. Read More
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