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Tests of Intelligence - Assignment Example

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The two tests, Wechsler Scales of Intelligence and the Stanford-Binet intelligence Scales, 5th edition, are used to test the intelligence levels of children and adults, with modifications in the type and method meant for specific age groups. These tests, along with others, are…
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Running head: tests of intelligence Tests of Intelligence Discussion week 6 Compare and contrast the Wechsler Scales of Intelligence in general with the Stanford-Binet
Intelligence Scales: 5th edition. Explain major ethical, legal, and socio-cultural issues as they relate to the Wechsler and S-B in particular and IQ tests in general. Include the issue of test bias.
The two tests, Wechsler Scales of Intelligence and the Stanford-Binet intelligence Scales, 5th edition, are used to test the intelligence levels of children and adults, with modifications in the type and method meant for specific age groups. These tests, along with others, are mainly applied for profile analysis meant to diagnostically distinguish between average and exceptional children and for identifying specific cognitive strengths and weaknesses (Watkins, Glutting & Youngstrom, 2005)
Wechsler Scales of Intelligence (WSIC):
Developed by David Wechsler, this is an intelligence test for children between the age group 6 to 16, meant to generate scores of IQ based on a comprehensive test model that includes ten core subtests and five supplemental tests. All these tests are verbal, and each of them carries equal weightage. The main testing spheres include verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory. Application of WSIC in the sphere of IQ testing has been more successful than in clinical testing for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and other learning disabilities in children.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales: 5th edition (SB-5):
This test was founded by Alfred Binet, and has undergone many modifications, the present one being 5th edition. This intelligence test is modeled to test using both verbal and nonverbal methods, aimed to assess reasoning, knowledge, analytical reasoning, visual-spatial processing and memory. The SB-5 is proven to be better in terms of assessing individuals and is more reliable (Becker, 2003).
Practical implications of WSIC and SB-5 Tests:
Based on a study conducted by Watkins et al. (1998), it was inferred that the WSIC test cannot distinguish between children with learning disabilities and those without disabilities. Further, the test could not predict academic achievement among children with learning disabilities. In this regard, the SB-5 is more suitable as it distinguishes children with different levels of intelligences and learning abilities.
Reliability and validity
Research indicated weak reliability scores for WSIC, with low internal consistency reliability criterion; inconsistent results across time were also observed, thus complicating individual decisions and assessments. Owing to the deviation of subtest measurements from normative methods, ipsative methods based on transformation to person-relative metrics have been opted. However, these are not empirical, and are intuitive; because of this, the results so obtained are psychometrically incongruent. Instability of subtests measurements makes the test less reliable. Statistical differences of group mean scores will not help in individual interpretations, thus making the test results invalid. Clinical utility is low (Watkins, Glutting & Youngstrom, 2005). Reliability of SB-5 was found to be high attributed to the low variation among individuals who were tested more than once. This test can be applied to test intelligences at all levels (Becker, 2003), and the results obtained are deemed valid.
Biasness:
The verbal method of WSIC makes it prone to examiner bias leading to scoring bias (Babad, 1975). The SB-5 test is empirically proven to be free of bias in terms of predictive accuracy at an individual level (Reynolds et al, 1980). In general, most of the intelligence tests, group comparisons pose issues of biasness based on cultures, ethnic groups, and gender. For example, definitions for intelligence vary in different cultures; practical and academic intelligences also differ in their meaning and stages of development; the test results are also dependent on type of environment and societal status. Language becomes a barrier to non-English speaking children when conducted in Standard English. These differences also create the stereotype threats related to ethnicity and gender, which further influence result interpretations (Santrock, 2006).
References
Books:
Santrock. (2006). Life-Span Development 3E. U.S.A: Tata McGraw-Hill.
Watkins, M.W, Glutting, J.J. and Youngstrom, E.A. (2005). In Flanagan, D.P. and Harrison, P.L.
‘Contemporary intellectual assessment: theories, tests, and issues.’ New York: Guilford Press.
Journals and Articles:
Babad, E, Y, Mann, M and Mar-Hayim, M. (1975). Bias in scoring the WISC subtests. Journal
of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Vol 43(2), Apr 1975, pp. 268.
Becker, K. A. (2003). History of the Stanford-Binet intelligence scales: Content and
psychometrics. (Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition Assessment Service Bulletin No. 1). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.
Reynolds, C.R. (1980). A Regression Analysis of Test Bias on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence
Scale. American Education Research Association.
Watkins, M.W., Kush, J., & Glutting, J.J. (1997). Discriminant and predictive validity of the
WISC-III ACID profile among children with learning disabilities. Psychology in the Schools, 34(4), 309-319. Read More
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