Primarily, they show the tendency of humans to focus concentration on inner experiences as an information source concerning the reliability of important psychic and somatic functions (Nutt, Feeney, & Argyropolous,…
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Taking into consideration the fact that functions such as consciousness, circulation, and respiration are vital for survival, it is unsurprising that particular defenseless people will be hypersensitive to any signs that they will lose consciousness, that they will lose their breath, or that their hearts will stop beating (Root, 2000). Moreover, a number of patients are predominantly terrified of symptoms that signify that they could be losing control over vicious urges directed toward others or themselves (Stein & Hollander, 2002). Likewise, a number of patients are particularly responsive to indications of behavioral or psychological ‘dyscontrol’ due to the probable effects of being hospitalized for ‘wild’ or ‘mad’ behavior, or perhaps shamed for uninhibited behavior (Stein & Hollander, 2002). The patient’s anxiety that a critical organ, such as the brain, lungs, or heart, or behavioral mechanism is about to stop working is a fundamental element of the cognitive mechanism of panic disorder (Taylor, 2004). Due to these concerns, patients vulnerable to panic attacks have a tendency to focus their attention on any mental or bodily encounters that are not explainable as normal.
A second attribute of panic disorder that challenges clinician and offers a profitable opportunity for the psychologist is the fixation of attention on the idea of an imminent tragedy. The tragedy that they fear subsequent to the start of the attack is not just the development of the panic disorder, but the likelihood of the much serious different explanation of their symptoms; specifically, that at this point it may not be the ordinary panic, but a swiftly grave process or a severe disruption of behavioral or mental functioning (Hurley, 2007). Besides the fixation on inner consciousness, the idea of approaching disaster absorbs the core of the patient’s thoughts and is usually so realistic that the
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Stein, et al noted that panic disorder is a learned fear of a particular physical sensation while agoraphobia is a behavioral response in expectation of encountering physical sensations or complete panic attack (27). This paper examines panic disorder, focusing on panic disorder with agoraphobia.
A lot of research has been done in etiology, assessment, and management of panic disorder but there is a significant gap in the application of these studies within the African American community. The diagnosis of panic disorder in addition to its treatment needs more exploration.
Under normal circumstances, an individual is attentive as well as responsive towards any panic condition. Under the condition of panic disorder, such consciousness occurs without any reason and when the situation is not provoked, which is observed as a serious co-morbid illness
Panic Disorder – Agoraphobia. Characteristics According to the Greek dictionary, the word Agoraphobia denotes the fear experienced by an individual due to market place. People experiencing this disorder are those who suspect that they will experience a panic attack in a particular location or scenario and they will not be able to escape that particular situation or scenario.
The discomfort or fear is often accompanied by other symptoms such as dyspnea, trembling, and an accelerated heart rate, just to mention a few (Thom n.pag.). The “panic attack” periods could last for hours or just a few minutes, and they often occur without warning. Children that develop such attacks may start to show anxiety most of the time, even when they are not under any attack.
It is a distressing phenomenon that many people suffer from at some point in their lives. PD makes about 5% of psychiatric diseases (Horwath, 1993).
There are many theories of the nature of PD. And still, in spite of this, many misunderstanding. The authors had been defending as cognitive as biological and biochemical theories of PD physiology.
As a result, the traumatic experience led to a significant change in the behavior of social life of traumatic Tony Stark (Comer, 2014, p.141-154). The stress experienced in the daily actives lead to stress that need
Leskin and Sheikh (2004) estimated that 2.7% of the American population suffers from panic disorders. They inferred that women are 2.5 times more likely than men to suffer from Panic Disorder, and that its prevalence increases with age. Treatment of Panic Disorder
One, anxiety disorder is treated with pharmacotherapy. Second, anxiety disorders are treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) (Antony & Swinson, 1996).
Panic disorder is diagnosed by the prevalence of persistence panic attacks, prolonged fear, and
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