It defines the health inequality and reasons for such inequalities. Also, the report discusses the regional and the racial inequalities. It studies the Black Report and points out the major reasons of…
Download file to see previous pages...
Today, there is little doubt that health has become an important determinant of the social well being of the people and therefore also of the nation.
In simple words, one can define health inequality as the absence of equal health facilities. But the definition of the term ‘health inequality’ is much broad and complex. The theorists link the definition of health inequalities with the social class and social strata. Whitehead, on his celebrated paper “The Concepts and Principles of Equity in Health”, defined the concept as the differences in health that are avoidable, unfair and unnecessary. Also, he maintained that the concept of health inequality has been a topic of constant debate in Europe (Whitehead, 1992).
According to few of the other experts of the field, the equality essentially involve absence of systematic disparities in health among the various social groups that have different social merits or demerits as health inequalities generally affect those who are already in the disadvantageous position in the society (Braveman & Gruskin, 2007).
The modern research has proved it time and again that the health inequalities largely depend upon the social classes and social inequalities. It has been observed that more deprived the class, more prevalent is the inequalities in health.
Karl Marx, the celebrated Communist theorist had two specific factors in his definition of class. The first is that of objective factors (this defines the relationship of one with the means of production) and the second involves subjective factors (it is the common interest among the members of the society). Max Weber, on the other hand, developed three component theory of stratification with extreme emphasis upon class, status and politics. He thought the relationship between the three factors varies from society to society.
Social class and health are closely related. As social class is often associated with one’s economic and
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Thus, public health includes performance in relation to the series of policies pertaining to vaccination, nourishment, tobacco, alcohol and drugs among other aspects. Apart from the mentioned factors, public health policy is also known to encompass pregnancy, children health and medical recovery.
Economic, as well as social conditions and their effects on lives of the people, determine their risks of illness, as well as the actions taken in preventing them from becoming ill. Some examples of health inequalities between various countries include the infant mortality rates that are 3 per 1000 live births in China and over 130 per 1000 live births in Kenya, and the lifetime risks of the maternal deaths during after pregnancy is 2 in 18,300 in Sweden, but it is 2 in 9, in Afghanistan (Amir, Z.
The essay will also include issues such as ontology, and epistemology in identifying the strengths, weaknesses of both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Several studies have been done in the field of health sciences to establish different aspects of health inequalities.
National Health Services of the United Kingdom is the world's largest publicly funded health care service provider which was evolved with an aim of providing good healthcare to all i.e. irrespective of wealth (http://www.nhs.uk)1 However it is pertinent to mention that central taxation funds 84% of the NHS provisions and NHS expenditure is 83% of total healthcare funding (Morris, 2006).2 Health and social care are the two important aspects that most of the nations are trying to build their economic growth.
The concept of 'health' is open to differing interpretations. The bio-medical perspective on health focuses on presence or absence of diagnosed diseases, but broader definitions include the idea of health as 'a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity' (Curtis, 2004, p 1-2).
The NHS is managed by the United Kingdom, Department of Health and is funded by the tax payer.1 The NHS provides nation wide health care services to include the following:-
The NHS is a continuously evolving organisation and has been adapting to the emerging health environment.
These include national guidelines, a system of clinical governance, imposing the importance of delivering high-quality care, and a national inspection system across areas or disciplines. Although there is evidence that the performance of the National Health Services have improved, it is not beyond criticism that there are still glaring deficiencies in services and people's access to these services.
The over all performance of the population on health index has seen remarkable improvement. Life expectancy level has been improved to the level of one of the best in the world and the dreaded diseases have almost vanished with pro active and preventive approach of the government as well as the society.
Health inequality is a major public health concern not only in developing counties but also in developed country like UK. According to the WHO (2010), health inequality is defined as "differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between