In society around the world these is debate about the inequalities in the health and healthcare that we observe among populations and among places. Research seeks to improve understanding of the causes of health variation. Such knowledge should provide evidence about how best to influence the causes of health inequality and produce health gain for human populations (Curtis, 2004, p 1-2).
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The inequalities in the health of the nation (Townsend et al., 1988) have been subject to extensive debate and policy initiatives over a number of years. Many of the 'problems' and needs have been long identified but are still awaiting resolution. As long ago as 1980, the Black Report on inequalities in health reported that:
One of the most important dimensions of inequality in contemporary Britain is race. Immigrants to this country from the so-called New Commonwealth, whose ethnic identity is clearly visible in the color of their skin, are known to experience greater difficulty in finding work and adequate housing. Given these disabilities, it is to be expected that they might also record higher than average rates of mortality (Townsend et al., 1988:50).
"Health inequalities are the systematic, structural differences in health status between and within social groups within the population. The term "health inequalities" is closely linked to "social determinants of health" (Marmot and Wilkinson 1999) as it refers to the multiple influences upon health status, including socioeconomic status, diet, education, employment, housing, and income. It is thus concerned with the "causes of the causes" of disease. Inequalities in health care do exist (notably in access to care) but these are not considered the principal cause of inequalities in health status (Marmot 1999).
The social determinants of health and health inequalities pose particular problems for policymakers. The causes are multifaceted and the solutions must be too. Policies may need to be long-term, require the collaboration of multiple agencies, and generate few outcomes measures initially. Unless policy processes are understood, current and future policies may not achieve their goals. Indeed, some policies such as those that have reduced overall levels of smoking have unwittingly increased socioeconomic inequalities in smoking (Jarvis 1997; Evans 2002). Also, the lack of evidence about effective policies is significant given the policies to tackle health inequalities that have been recently proposed by the U.K. government" (Marmont, Michael, 2003).
The Macpherson Report
The Macpherson Report (1999) has now given a momentum and legitimacy to action against racism rarely seen in the UK before. It created a clear definition of institutional racism that moved away from blaming and labeling individuals as racist to an understanding that long-standing practices can cause organizations to discriminate unwittingly. This has enabled us to take a new approach to racism, moving away from 'witch-hunting' and attributing racism to particular individuals or groups, towards a search for positive solutions (Dylan Ronald Tomlinson, Winston Trew, 2002).
Overt racism from individuals remains a very significant problem in the UK, as suggested by findings of the Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities cited earlier. Just over one quarter of white respondents had a preference for a doctor of their own 'ethnic origin' and while 60 per cent of this group stated that this was because they had difficulty understanding a non-white doctor, and thus, for them, overt racism cannot be assumed to be proven, for the other 40 per cent the reasons given suggest, 'more clearly contained
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“Health Inequality in Britain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/sociology/1501254-health-inequality-in-britain.
The author states that in the UK, health inequalities have been studied and well documented. Studies have indicated that there exists a difference in morbidity and mortality rates across the social spectrum. Health inequalities can be argued to be differences in health status or even distribution of health determinants.
When we compare whites and blacks in terms of income, whites have higher incomes and lower mortality rates. This is also evidence in places where the population has a large portion of blacks. These places are relatively high in both mortality and income inequality.
There are conflicting definitions of health inequality. Some people just refer to it as disparity, inequity or inequality depending on their understanding of the word. This is evident, in various people in the world. Health disparities causes are complex but can be tackled in one way or another.
Different researchers have opined that the increasing level of poverty and inequality in the Britain are creating significant level of negative impacts upon the people’s health, mainly affecting the children and the older people. Various material impacts, such as poor level of diet, damp housing in some places of the country, scarcity of places for the children to play, higher level of unemployment across the country and proper or well-structured access to well-resourced health services are negatively affecting these people’s health status (Smith, 2001, pp.59-60).
Despite numerous social changes, conditions of structural inequality have not disappeared. In fact, the gap between the richest and poorest sections of the population still exists today and has increased dramatically in recent years. Between 1979 and 1995 the net incomes of the richest ten percent of the population grew by 68%, while those of the bottom tenth fell by 8%.
166 and 167). At the same time, reducing health inequalities has been incorporated into Italy's 2000-2000 National Health Plan and Sweden is developing a health strategy structured around measurable equity targets (Ministero della Sanita, 2000; National Public Health Commission, 2000).
Health cannot be quantified in a way; however ‘inequality’ pertaining to health can be associated with financial aspects. Health inequalities can also mean situations in which there is a poor distribution of finances and the limits that are imposed on the health benefits received depending on the person’s financial and social status.
The Bakeshop is ideally located in the middle of the city, right across schools , banks, and churches; thus, making it a very convenient place for a quick snack. Students, mothers, office workers, as well as church goers will find this
Health inequality is a major public health concern not only in developing counties but also in developed country like UK. According to the WHO (2010), health inequality is defined as "differences in health status or in the distribution of health determinants between
In Britain, blacks and other minority ethnic groups have existing poor health status attributed to ethnic and racial discrimination in health care access and quality. These groups have low socio-economic power that leads them to experience
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