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DNAs that are prepared in this way may then be analysed by a method called gel electrophoresis. This involves the use of electric currents to facilitate the separation of linear DNA molecules through a gel support, usually consisting of the polymer agarose or polyacrylamide. These polymers form a molecular sieve that permit the DNA to pass through at a rate that is approximately inversely proportional to the log of the molecular weight as measured in kilobase pairs (Kb). The current initiates the movement of DNA from the site of application to the positively charged cathode as the negatively charged phosphate groups in the DNA molecule are drawn to the cathode by electrostatic attraction. If DNA fragments of Known molecular weight are electrophoresed simultaneously thre molecular weight of the DNA fragments generated by restriction enzyme digestion may be ascertained by comparing their rate of mobility with that of the standards of known molecular weight. This is usually calculated by preparing a graph representing the log of the molecular weight of DNA standards versus the measured distance traveled beach band in millimeters (mm). The distances of the unknown fragments is measured and their molecular weights are determined by locating the position these measured distances are located on the graph. Restriction enzyme digestion of DNA followed by gel electrophoresis is a commonly used method for preparing DNA maps and determining the molecular weights of unknown DNA samples.
The DNA used in this experimental protocol was obtained by culturing bacteria (E.coli) that contain plasmid DNA. Two types of plasmids were prepared from E.coli, designated plasmid X and Y. After the plasmid DNA was extracted from the bacterial cells, it was then digested with restriction enzymes, which are capable of making double stranded cuts in DNA molecules at specific
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Genetic engineering is one of the most advanced technologies that is being used these days. It is a laborious process and requires extensive research. Genetic engineering is a process in which gene is taken from one organism and incorporated into other.
Abbreviations: Inr= initiator sequence of the RNA polymerase II promoter; UCE= upstream control element of the RNA polymerase I promoter.
A 29 kilo base (kb) linear DNA fragment is digested with ApeK I, Bst I and Cla I, individually and in combination, and the resulting DNA fragment sizes are determined by agarose gel electrophoresis.
While it is true that molecular data or DNA data results to documented sequence of various events in the evolutionary development of specific specie, it cannot achieve any success in deciphering the evolution of species that lived hundreds or millions of years ago
s which enables the root tissue to grow fast and in turn the root to grow quick enough to meet the demands of a growing plant (Fox and Kennedy, 2007). The speed of this process in some plants such as onions is such that the process can be observed on a light microscope (Rieder
idences of treatment failures have been reported for this disease, causing rising concern to health care providers and researchers (Blomquist, et al., 2014). The causal organism Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been reported to exhibit resistance to first line therapeutic drugs and
The ideas on the regulation of protein synthesis in bacteria have mainly arisen from the studies of Perse Monod on the induced synthesis of B-galactosidase in E.coli. It resulted in the discovery of regulatory events to the transcription of DNA and the assemblage of functionally related genes into clusters called operons.
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