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The question is worth-discussing, therefore, the given paper is designed in order to discuss different reasons and possible benefits of newborn circumcision.
It is interesting that in the modern world people find a lot of reasons for circumcision, besides religious. The newborn circumcision is usually made on the parents’ request, thus neither Medicaid nor other medical insurance cover the costs of this procedure. Girls are usually not circumcised in developed countries (Simkin et al, 1991). Some people from America decide to circumcise their baby boys because of the following reasons:
There are many different positive and negative opinions about circumcision. Notwithstanding that there are some supposed benefits of it, doctors still do not recommend it: “From that study WHO and UNAIDS international expert consultation on male circumcision and HIV prevention concluded that there is unfolding evidence from randomized controlled trials, undertaken in Kenya, South Africa and Uganda, that safemale circumcision reduces the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV infection from women to men by approximately 60%. The trials also showed that male circumcision performed by well-trained medical professionals in properly equipped facilities is safe.” (WHO Regional Office for Africa, 12 September 007ccited in “Newborn Circumcision – Pros and Cons”).
Actually circumcision does not bring any definite harm or benefit. Many American men who went through this procedure testify that it does not influence their psychological, sexual state or body image anyhow. It is also interesting that some women from the United States prefer men who went thought circumcision for hygienic reasons (Eisenberg, 1989).
Circumcision is also connected with the number of risks such as infection after operation, doctor’s mistakes, anesthetic difficulties, serious blood loss and even death (1 infant out of 500000 dies from circumcision). Sometimes,
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Female genital mutilation continues eliciting ethical, legal and professional concerns in medical practice mainly because of its widespread application for non-therapeutic use cultural use in various parts of the world. This paper examines how ethical, legal and professional issues underpin female circumcision in clinical practice.
This essay focuses on describing of development stages of the newborn babies, that is in the human being’s most critical stage of life. This first weeks after birth, babies are totally dependent on its parents and caregivers, as well as on their actions, experiences and bonds acquired during this time, that usually last their entire life.
There is no argument that laws should be aimed at protecting the society but there are certain practices which are termed as religious or cultural. These practices sometimes are sometimes in violation with the universal definition of human rights but people argue in favor of them because of the religious and cultural basis of those practices.
It is usually to be done within 48 hours of the baby’s birth or at the most within 10 days of birth. Until the 1970s, circumcision was considered to be a religious custom and parents’ permission was not mandatory for circumcising male infants. David Gollaher argues that circumcision doesn’t make a boy a Jewish or a Muslim.
Surgery is a means of treating diseases. Borrowing the word’s meaning from its Greek origins their, hand, and ergon, work, the literal translation of surgery is “handiwork “. In simpler terms, surgery means the treatment of disease by use of the hand. Surgery has been used by man for thousands of years as a method to treat diseases.
Although opponents of circumcision question the mutilation or removal of foreskin resulting to painful and decrease sexual response, existing scientific evidence demonstrates potential medical benefits of neonatal male circumcision because it prevents cases of urinary tract infection (UTI), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or sexually transmitted disease (STD) and penile cancer for infants and adults.
So attempts to save the women from the practice may in fact reflect a longer-lived prejudice against all things 'African'.
Njambi suggests that the current campaign against "female genital mutilation" (or FGM) in fact suggests that the human body can be separated from its cultural context, and that those who are so against the practice are perpetuating a "culture/nature dualism" that has been "roundly questioned by feminists in science studies".
Another statistic by WHO indicates that around 92 million girls aged 10 and above have been subjected to FGM (Female genital mutilation 1). To make matters worse, an additional 2 million girls are at risk of being circumcised every