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The Spreading Disease of Diabetes - Essay Example

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It has been reported that worldwide, around 194 million people are suffering from diabetes of which 18.2 million people i.e. 6.3% of the US population are from United States, and it is…
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The Spreading Disease of Diabetes
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The Spreading Disease of Diabetes Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome primarily characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It has been reported that worldwide, around 194 million people are suffering from diabetes of which 18.2 million people i.e. 6.3% of the US population are from United States, and it is estimated that 334 million diabetes cases will be diagnosed in 2025 (Singh & Gardner, 2005). U.S. death certificates of 2006 have listed diabetes as the seventh leading cause of death (National Diabetes Statistics, 2007). 57 million people are prediabetic i.e. individuals having increased blood glucose levels than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes (National Diabetes Statistics, 2007). 186,300, or 0.22% of population below 20 years of age suffers from diabetes. 0.25% children and adolescents possess type 1 diabetes. Prediabetic individuals in the age range of 12-19 years are around 2 million adolescents (5% obese adolescents). After the age of 20 years, 23.5 million, or 10.7% of all population experience diabetes. 12.2 million, or 23.1% elderly population having age greater than or equal to 60 years suffers from diabetes. 12.0 million, or 11.2% of all men and 11.5 million, or 10.2% of all women aged 20 years or older have diabetes (National Diabetes Statistics, 2007). The certain populations have a higher prevalence of diabetes due to specific genetic traits leading to race and ethnic differences in diabetic rates such as 6.6% of non-Hispanic whites, 7.5% of Asian Americans, 11.8% of non-Hispanic blacks, and 10.4% of Hispanics (among Hispanics: 8.2% Cubans, 11.9% Mexican Americans, and 12.6% Puerto Ricans). Diabetic rates mentioned are after the age of 20 years (National Diabetes Statistics, 2007). Diabetes is broadly classified into two types: Type I Diabetes and Type II Diabetes. Type I diabetes is juvenile or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and almost 10% of all diabetic cases are dependent on insulin for their survival. Other 90% cases display type II diabetes caused due to decreased insulin levels and/or insulin resistance (American Diabetes Association, 2002). Type II diabetes is mainly caused by passive still stressed lifestyle leading to onset of diabetes in obese children and middle aged individuals and also called as and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) (World Health Organisation, 1999). The genetic as well as environmental factors causes malfunctioning of the insulin functioning or secretion. Normal blood glucose levels are dependent on circulating insulin levels, counterregulatory hormone levels which assist glucose production and release from the liver. These are altered by types, duration and intensity of exercise and characteristics of the individual (Riddell & Perkins, 2006).
Diabetes is associated chronic hyperglycaemia with vascular (microvascular and cardiovascular) and neuropathic complications as the disease becomes chronic, and decrease the quality of life (Expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus, 1997). Various complications of diabetes are heart diseases, stroke, high blood pressure, blindness, kidney diseases, nervous system disorders (neuropathy) etc. These disorders along with diabetes increases chances of lower-limb amputations in more than 60% diabetic people and substantially increase diabetes related morbidity and mortality (National Diabetes Statistics, 2007).
Diabetes is one of the major bad implications of the recent trend of sedentary and inactive living style. The environmental stimuli such as diet, physical activity and obesity increases blood sugar level in the blood. The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes is thought to be largely due to the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity which has resulted from a decline in everyday physical activity and easy availability of high-fat, high-energy foods (Prentice and Jebb, 1995). The prevalence of patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who are overweight or obese is known to be at least 90% (Davies et al, 2003) and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes steadily rises as body mass index (BMI) increases. At a BMI greater than 40kg/m2 the lifetime risk of developing the disease is 50% (Chan et al, 1994).
Early detection and prevention of diabetes is a key to make the population free from this dreaded disease. Dietitians, health educators, physicians, physical therapist and self help are the major contributors to nurture favourable blood sugar levels in diabetic patients on long term basis by constantly evaluating and monitoring the pros and cons of the prescribed exercise therapy.
References
American Diabetes Association. Implications of the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 2002; 25:S28-S32.
Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ribb EB et al (1994) Obesity, fat distribution and weight gain risk factors fro clinical diabetes in man. Diabetes Care. 17: 961-969
Davies M, Tringham J, Peach F, Daly H (2003) Prediction of weight gain associated with insulin treatment. Journal of diabetes Nursing. 7(3): 94-98
Expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes Mellitus (1997) Report from the expert committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 20: 1183-1197
National Diabetes Statistics (2007) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. National Diabetes Statistics, 2007 fact sheet. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.
Prentice AM and Jebb SA (1995) Obesity in Britain: gluttony or sloth. BMJ 311: 437-439.
Riddell, M. C. & Perkins, B. A. (2006). Type 1 Diabetes and Vigorous Exercise: Applications of Exercise Physiology to Patient Management. Canadian Journal Of Diabetes, 30(1), 63-71.
Singh, R. S. & Gardner, T.W. Clinical Management of Diabetic Retinopathy. Published: 06/30/2005 http://cme.medscape.com/viewarticle/506671
World Health Organisation Consultation (1999) Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and it’s complications. Geneva: World Health Organisation Read More
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