Research Article Summary (Organizational Behaviour) - Essay Example

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This theory explains that the exchange between the leader and the follower is based not on simply routine but intellectual stimulation, inspiration and motivation. The leaders define an environment where…
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Research Article Summary (Organizational Behaviour)
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Introduction: The theory chosen for consideration is transformational leadership. This theory explains that the exchange between the leader and the follower is based not on simply routine but intellectual stimulation, inspiration and motivation. The leaders define an environment where followers apart from exchange of bargains with the follower, can also learn and grow from their interaction with the leader.
Two articles chosen are based on the theory of transformational leadership and the analysis of individual and group performance between managers is evaluated on the basis of transformational leadership in both these articles.
Summary of the Articles:
Avolio and Howell in their article suggest that transformational leadership has three measures that define the performance of managers and these measures are linked with local of control and innovation. The article also discusses how transactional leadership is connected to manager performance but is negatively linked unlike transformational leadership.
Dubinsky and Yammarino suggest in their article that that transformational leadership can be studied at the level of individuals, dyads and groups to understand how their performance is impacted by this leadership method.
Dubinsky and Yammarino further define four hypotheses for their levels of analysis or evaluation on how transformational leadership is based on and is affected by individual differences, differences in dyads within groups, differences between dyads and between each of them, cross level:
“Hypothesis 1: Relationships derived from transformational leadership theory (five previously stated expectations) will hold at the individual level of analysis; that is, they are based on individual differences”
“Hypothesis 2: Relationships derived from transformational leadership theory will hold at the dyads-within-groups level of analysis; that is, they are based on differences among dyads within groups.”
“Hypothesis 3: Relationships derived from transformational leadership theory will hold at the between-dyads level of analysis; that is, they are based on differences between dyads”
“Hypothesis 4: Relationships derived from transformational leadership theory will be cross-level in nature, holding at three levels of analysis; that is, they are based on individual differences, between-dyads differences, and differences among dyads within groups.”
To understand how business performance can be impacted through transformational leadership and whether performance is a direct result of transformational leadership, the following hypotheses have been designed by Avolio and Howell:
“Hypotheses la and Ib. Management-by-exception leadership that is passive or active will negatively predict unit performance over a 1-year interval.
Hypothesis 2. Contingent reward leadership will positively predict unit performance over a 1-year interval.
Hypotheses 3a, 3b, and 3c: Charismatic leadership, leadership based on intellectual stimulation, and leadership based on individualized consideration will each positively predict unit performance over a 1-year period.
Hypothesis 5. There will be a positive relationship between locus of control and transformational-leadership behaviors such that internally oriented leaders will exhibit more transformational behaviors than will externally oriented leaders. This relationship will hold across differing levels of support for innovation.”
Dubinsky and Yammarino concluded that charisma was a positive contribution to the performance of the business, and their individual consideration rather than contingency management and exception management helped the business unit to perform better than others. Performance and Contingent reward management have shown a positive correlation however, the study indicated a negative relationship. This was primarily because if the manager promises reward without fulfilment, this relationship does not sustain, which was the reason provided for this discrepancy in the study. The study concluded that the leader’s charisma allows followers to internalize the vision of the leader and thus motivates them to be more effective.
Similar to the study of Dubinsky and Yammarino, Avolio and Howell point out that individual differences are impacted by leadership’s ability to be a transformational leader and thus the individuals’ performance is highly likely to vary with the ability of the leader to be a transformational leader.
Practical Implications and Future Directions:
These studies can be utilized for the benefit of the organizations and the leader follower relationship that exists between the employers and employees. Transformational leadership has been seen to have a positive impact on the performance of individual employees and thus can be utilized in organizations for this benefit. Moreover, the study has shown that individual performance is linked to the leader’s transformational leadership abilities leading towards effectiveness and increased follower-ship. This can be utilized for the benefit of the organizations that can develop transformational leadership skills in their managers for a better relationship between the employer and employee. Further developments can be combining leadership styles and understanding the implications of the combination on individual and group performance, liking combining transformational and servant leadership styles. Read More
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