(2008). Ondansetron, granisetron, and dexamethasone compared for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized placebo-controlled study. Surg Endosc,…
Download file to see previous pages...
The other exposures of interest include use of nitrous oxide, the utilization of slightly hypoxic mixtures during anesthesia, and postoperative opioid administration.
The effectiveness of dexamethasone as antiemetic was compared with the two serotonin subtype 3 antagonists ondansetron and granisetron in 80 patients divided into four groups undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Group 1, consisting of control patients, received 0.9% NaCl; group 2 patients received ondansetron 4 mg i.v.; group 3 patients received granisetron 3 mg i.v.; and group 4 patients received dexamethasone 8 mg i.v., all before the induction of anesthesia. Both nausea and vomiting were assessed during the first 24 h after the procedure.
Inclusion Criteria: A total of 80 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical class I–II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. The age range was from 21 to 75 years (mean: 51.5 years). Each patient gave his or her written consent to participate in the study. The study was approved by the Medical University ethics committee.
The exclusion criteria: The patients’ exclusion criteria were as follows: American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical class III–IV; age over 75 years; body mass index above 30; pregnancy; smoking; signs of gastrointestinal, endocrine, renal, hepatic or immunological disease; use of opioids or tranquillizers less than 1 week before the operation; treatment with steroids; history of alcohol or drug abuse; history of motion sickness; preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder empyema and previous endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones; and conversion to open cholecystectomy.
The incidence of nausea and vomiting was recorded during three assessment periods, 0–6 h, 6–12 h, and 12–24 h, by nursing staff without knowledge of which antiemetic the patients had received. Both nausea and vomiting were
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Development of these interventions and techniques is based on research and systematic studies conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of some of these initiatives. In order to come up with a conclusive or concrete decision pertaining to the best version of remedy, evaluation must be conducted with regard to the proposed solutions and interventions.
It narrows the purpose of the study to focus on the methodological quality of published quantitative educational reports. To a certain extent, the identifiable purpose is researchable but there are likely to be problems related to this type of research. Since this study focused on published quantitative studies related to this topic, it can be seen that in some cases, these studies focus on different areas that are not directly related.
Its designers, Frederic Williams, Tom Kilburn and Geoff Tootill, who worked at the Electrical Engineering department of the University, developed the machine as a test-bed for Williams Tube - one of the created at that time computer memories, and did not mean the Baby to become a prototype of the contemporary computer (Enticknap, 1998).
tions of secondary students – students with learning disabilities, remedial students, holds the promise for sufficient practical and theoretical value for research. The study has a rationale, as it purports to bring out significant findings in the learning pattern of a
researcher’s choice of research design are depth of the study, logical similarity, hypothetical clarity, the level of idea, clinical utility and view point on cultural competence (Ritchie, 2006).
The depth of the study has influenced the researchers’ choice of the research
The development of gratitude within youth shows development of character and consequently there is a need to study it to better understand its different forms and levels. This research paper examines the development of