Experimental Study - Article Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
(2008). Ondansetron, granisetron, and dexamethasone compared for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized placebo-controlled study. Surg Endosc,…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.3% of users find it useful
Experimental Study
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Experimental Study"

Experimental Study Erhan, Y., Erhan, E., Aydede, H., Yumus, O., Yentur A. (2008). Ondansetron, granisetron, and dexamethasone compared for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized placebo-controlled study. Surg Endosc, 22,1487–1492. DOI 10.1007/s00464-007-9656-3
Research Question:
Whether cheap and safe dexamethasone can replace costly Ondansetron, granisetron for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy?
Health Outcome of Interest:
Prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Exposure(s) of Interest:
The causes of postoperative nausea and vomiting are numerous. The exposures of interest after laparoscopic cholecystectomy are prolonged carbon dioxide insufflation, residual pneumoperitoneum after CO2 insufflation, peritoneum distension, diaphragm irritation, and visceral organ irritation and manipulation. The other exposures of interest include use of nitrous oxide, the utilization of slightly hypoxic mixtures during anesthesia, and postoperative opioid administration.
Types of Experimental Study (may be more than one):
The effectiveness of dexamethasone as antiemetic was compared with the two serotonin subtype 3 antagonists ondansetron and granisetron in 80 patients divided into four groups undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Group 1, consisting of control patients, received 0.9% NaCl; group 2 patients received ondansetron 4 mg i.v.; group 3 patients received granisetron 3 mg i.v.; and group 4 patients received dexamethasone 8 mg i.v., all before the induction of anesthesia. Both nausea and vomiting were assessed during the first 24 h after the procedure.
The effect on impaired wound healing, postoperative infection, or other complications associated with the use of dexamethasone were observed.
Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria and Initial Sample Size in Each Arm:
Initial Sample Size: 80 patients (61 women and 19 men).
Inclusion Criteria: A total of 80 American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical class I–II patients scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. The age range was from 21 to 75 years (mean: 51.5 years). Each patient gave his or her written consent to participate in the study. The study was approved by the Medical University ethics committee.
The exclusion criteria: The patients’ exclusion criteria were as follows: American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical class III–IV; age over 75 years; body mass index above 30; pregnancy; smoking; signs of gastrointestinal, endocrine, renal, hepatic or immunological disease; use of opioids or tranquillizers less than 1 week before the operation; treatment with steroids; history of alcohol or drug abuse; history of motion sickness; preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder empyema and previous endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones; and conversion to open cholecystectomy.
Data Collection at Baseline:
The incidence of nausea and vomiting was recorded during three assessment periods, 0–6 h, 6–12 h, and 12–24 h, by nursing staff without knowledge of which antiemetic the patients had received. Both nausea and vomiting were assessed. In the first interval (0–6 h) after the operation, nausea and vomiting were most frequent in the control group compared with the other three groups, all of which were given antiemetics (p\0.05). At that time (0–6 h), the need for rescue antiemetic vomiting was also most frequent
in the control group compared with the other three groups given antiemetics (p\0.05)
Blinding of Subjects and Use of Placebo:
A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on the patients who were divided into four groups (n = 20 each).
Type of Data Analysis:
Results were calculated as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Parametric data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and for nonparametric variables the chi-square test were used; where p \ 0.05 was considered significant.
Results/Main Findings of Study:
The total incidence of PONV was 75% with placebo, 35% with ondansetron, 30% with granisetron, and 25% with dexamethasone during 24 hour.. The incidence of PONV was significantly less frequent in groups receiving antiemetics (p\0.05). The differences between dexamethasone, granisetron, and ondansetron were not significant.
Comments (including generalizability of the study):
Dexamethasone 8 mg i.v. alone can acts as antiemetic for the prevention of postoperative nausea and emesis.
Prophylactic dexamethasone is a simple, safe, cheap, and effective antiemetic drug for the patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Dexamethasone was as effective as ondansetron 4 mg and granisetron 3 mg and it was more effective than placebo. The combined antiemetic therapy where dexamethasone was usually combined with the serotonin subtype 3 antagonists, can be used for high risk group such as obese individuals, earlier postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) episodes, motion sickness, and illnesses of the upper alimentary track, especially gastric and duodenal ulcers, esophagitis, or hiatal hernia, menstruating women. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Experimental Study Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Experimental Study Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from
(Experimental Study Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
Experimental Study Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words.
“Experimental Study Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


Skin-to-skin contact after Cesarean delivery: An experimental study

...?Skin-to-Skin Contact after Cesarean Delivery: An Experimental Study This paper “Skin-to-Skin Contact after Cesarean Delivery: An Experimental Study”describes an experimental study conducted in order to elucidate the safety of the practice of early Skin-to-Skin Contact (SSC) of the mother and the newborn baby after Cesarean delivery (Gouchon, Gregori, Picotto, Patrucco, Nangeroni, & Di Giulio, 2010). The study also aimed at determining benefits of SSC on initial attachment to breast and the degree of maternal satisfaction with SSC. The study design chosen by the authors to conduct thus...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Skin-to-Skin Contact after Cesarean Delivery: An Experimental Study

...?Skin-to-Skin Contact after Cesarean Delivery: An Experimental Study Quantitative Study Research problem: Skin to Skin Contact (i.e. placing the naked baby on the mother’s chest) after vaginal delivery has been shown to have multiple advantages, for both the newborn and the mother. For the mother, these advantages include promotion of mother-child bonding and better breastfeeding status and duration. From the infant’s perspective, the practice of skin to skin contact has a positive impact on the infants’ thermoregulation, infant behavior and infant crying (Moore, Anderson, & Bergman, 2009; Gouchon, Gregori, Picotto, Patrucco, Nangeroni, & Di Giulio, 2010). However, the role of this...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Experimental and quasi-experimental design

..., a teacher can come up with effective teaching plans and use these results to establish the most appropriate option to use and increase benefit to students. It provides reliable results by utilization of procedures, quantitative measurement levels and random selection. This assures the researcher that the outcomes obtained are a true representation of the real occurrence. The first disadvantage of experimental design is that it involves abuse of ethical standards. In order to get the expected results, the researcher may manipulate people’s revelations to the study being conducted. For example, people believe children’s exposure to violence on television increases aggressiveness, thus the researcher may...
4 Pages(1000 words)Term Paper

Experimental psychology

... Generally, it is expected that when an altruistic offer is made, the person to whom the offer was made will accept the offer. However, researchers beginning in the 1960s found that that altruism can elicit negative emotions in the recipient, for reasons ranging from the recipient’s perception that the aid was a threat to their autonomy to anxiety regarding reciprocity issues. Therefore, when an altruistic offer is made, it may or may not be accepted. This study was undertaken to better understand the offeror-recipient dynamic and, in particular, if there are gender differences in accepting or declining an altruistic offer and the nature of those differences. The altruistic offer was an offer from the researcher who was seated... by...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Experimental Study

...Experimental Study Submitted By August 2, 2009 Article Citation in APA format:  De Wit, M., Delemarre-Van de Waal, H. A., Bokma, J. A., Haasnoot, K., Houdijk, M. C., Gemke, R. J. et al. (2008). Monitoring and discussing health-related quality of life in adolescents with type 1 diabetes improve psychosocial well-being: A randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care, 31(8), 1521-1526. Research Question:  Will monitoring and discussing of health-related quality of life to adolescents with Type 1 diabetes improve their psychosocial well-being? Health Outcome of Interest:  The health outcome of interest is improved psychosocial well-being of adolescent patients with Type 1 diabetes. Exposure(s) of Interest:  The exposure of interest... is...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Experimental Research

... of the of the of the Experimental Research Experimental research is exclusive in that it is the sole kind of study that exactly endeavors to leverage a specific variable, and it is the sole kind that, when utilized correctly, can actually check hypotheses regarding the cause-and-effect relationships. Experimental concepts are some of the strongest accessible for informative investigators to use in working out origin and effect. (Fraenkel, 110-114) The following are two choices that may be utilized to teach numbers utilizing the experimental study method. First, students are granted a worksheet where an outline of the artifact (object) is drawn with coding letters and are proposed to recognize the fixed points, the trajectories... of a...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay


...Alternative and Normal breathing methods of Introduction Breathing has different implications to biological systems. Alternative breathing phase and normal breathing phase are good examples of how breathing can have different effects on various functioning systems of the body. As a result, this paper intends to compare the relations between alternative breathing phase and normal breathing phase and their implications on sleeping. Summary of Results From data collected in A and B sections, the mean average time it took me to fall asleep during normal phase and alternative phase was 30 minutes. On the hand, the average time waking up was approximately 20 minutes. My restful score for every morning was averagely seven hours meaning... and Normal ...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Experimental Marketing Study for Pepsi

...Experimental Marketing Study for Pepsi Introduction All Sport is a leading distributor of the famous soft drink Pepsi. However, to increase its sales the company intends to have a different chain of marketing. Marketing decisions play a vital role in the success of the business. Experimental Design This research formulates a question that enhances the research. Does Pepsi increase its sales after switching to a new marketing channel? Bar charts are used to indicate the different percentages recorded from the sales. Linear charts are used to illustrate the comparison between the two marketing channels (Shimp, 2010). Dependent Variables The main dependent variables are demand and cost...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Experimental versus Non-Experimental Research

...Experimental versus Non-Experimental Research Contents Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 2 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH 2 Experimental Research 4 Non-Experimental Research 5 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES 7 Sampling 8 Validity 9 Reliability 9 Bias 10 EMPLOYABILITY OF MILITARY VETERANS IN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 10 Research Methodology 11 Sampling 12 Validity 12 Reliability 13 Bias 13 RECOMMENDATION 13 Bibliography 15 INTRODUCTION There are different methods and approaches for conducting research into a given social phenomenon. This includes a wide range of approaches and methodologies which can be applied to a given situation and context. Quantitative research is a unique and...
14 Pages(3500 words)Assignment

We should work with and study the ambiguities fluidity and openness of social life rather than try and repress these in a fruitless chase for experimental control and scientific respectability (Wetherall 1996) Discuss

.... There are scientific theories that study human behavior. The theories come up with conclusions that summarize their findings. The scientists assume that the recommendations of the findings are the perfect ways in which people should live. It is important to note that scientific theories are not flexible as well as dynamic enough to be able to contain every aspect of the society. People end up struggling to meet the scientific requirements in order to live within the accepted code of ethics. This s referred to as living the life of others (Akerlof 2009, p. 89). Obviously, those who recommend particular behaviors only bring forward what fits them. Field theories enable the understanding of human behavior. They...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Article on topic Experimental Study for FREE!

Contact Us