Developmental Disorders - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
The presence of the disorder can be detected within the first 3 years of infancy. The condition is generally heterogeneous as the clinical features and behavioral…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.1% of users find it useful
Developmental Disorders
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Developmental Disorders"

Autism Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with abnormal social, cognitive, emotional and communicative behavior. The presence of the disorder can be detected within the first 3 years of infancy. The condition is generally heterogeneous as the clinical features and behavioral patterns vary from one autistic child to another and the symptoms of certain other disorders such as Rett’s and Asperger’s disorder often overlap with that of autism.
Key clinical features
The key clinical features that are identified as the child grows include, abnormal social interaction such as impaired non verbal behavior and movements, diminished interest in playing and interaction with peers, lack of spontaneity and emotional reciprocity, delay or total lack in speech, repetitive use of language, behavior patterns or mannerisms and constant preoccupation with certain objects (Lord et al; Brereton and Tonge).
According to latest reports the prevalence of Autism is about 60 per 10,000. However it is widely believed this rate is constantly on the rise (Hughes).
Cognitive abilities
Recent research has revealed that the cognitive ability of children with autism ranges from severely disabled to normal. They have low IQ scores and have difficulty in verbal sequencing. However, they have good immediate memory and visuo-spatial skills. The language, speech tone and modulation of these children are quite unusual and they sound mechanical and devoid of any emotions. They might use abnormal words, talk out of context or simply repeat them. They also have difficulty in understanding spoken language.
Social abilities
Autistic children also suffer from social impairments such as disinterest in interpersonal relationships, lack of non-verbal communication with people and inability to play with other children. Doctors believe that these may change as the child grows.
The genetics of autism has revealed that susceptibility to the disorder may be due to the presence of at least 3 abnormal genes. However, more research should be carried out to determine the genetic and environmental factors, if any, that may cause the disorder. Neurobiology
Neurobiological evidence suggests that the brains of people with autism are underdeveloped with abnormalities observed in the brain-stem structures. Current research also points to the involvement of the cerebral cortex for onset of clinical symptoms (Hughes). The heterogeneity of the disorder has made it difficult to study the neural systems involved and hence a detailed study of the neurobiology of autism would require proper categorization of the people with the disorder in order to find out the various brain regions causing the various impairments (Lord et al).
William’s syndrome is a complex genetic disorder that results in cardiovascular, connective tissue and neurodevelopmental deficits.
Key clinical features
The key clinical features include narrowing of the aorta, increased calcium concentration in the blood, language and motor movements are delayed, sensitivity to certain types of sound and along with these abnormal facial features and low IQ are also present in people with this disorder.
The occurrence of William’s syndrome is estimated to be 1 in 20,000 live births.
Cognitive abilities
The general cognitive functioning is lower in these people who tend to be highly social and are also anxious people with an increased interest in music. Though they have a good grasp of language skills, despite the slow beginning, their knowledge and understanding of the outer world is generally very low. They are, however, very strong grammatically and have sound linguistic skills which they tend to exhibit publicly. The spatial cognition of these people have been found to be very poor as they often lack organizing ability and have difficulty in arranging things in the right order. Visual skills like face recognition and processing are quite good.
Social abilities
People with William’s disorder have better social skills and have a strong urge to interact socially, which is especially evident among adolescents and adults. This increased interest in socializing helps to improve their language and expression and hence these people are highly expressive.
The genetic cause for the occurrence of the disorder has been identified to be a micro deletion in the gene encoding the protein elastin and 20 other genes present on chromosome 7. In addition duplication of certain genetic regions surrounding the elastin gene has also been found within which most of the deletion breakpoints are located.
The neurobiological characteristics of individuals with the disorder have been established by measuring event-related potentials in the brain which has revealed that both the hemispheres of the brain are active with respect to words and faces in these individuals. Thus the neural systems that are involved in these processes are different from that of normal individuals. In addition the brain volume is also reduced in these individuals along with reduced gray matter in the occipital lobe. More detailed research needs to be carried out to determine the neurobiology of the illness (Korenberg).
While both Autism and William’s syndrome is associated with neurodevelopmental defects, people with these two disorders exhibit distinct differences with respect to their language and social abilities. Autistic individuals have very poor linguistic ability and show reduced interest in social interaction at least at the initial stages. They are also less expressive and tend to be devoid of any emotions. In contrast, people with William’s syndrome have highly developed social skills and they have a spontaneous urge to interact socially. They have good language skills and are also highly expressive during the communication. In addition autistic children do not show any interest in activities such as music and play, while those with William’s syndrome show a good interest in music. Thus, with respect to interaction and involvement in activities, those with William’s syndrome fair better compared to Autistic individuals.
1. Lord, Catherine et al. Autism Spectrum Disorders. Neuron 28 (2000): 355-363.
2. Brereton, Avril and Tonge, Bruce. Autism. 1-24
3. Hughes, Virginia. Mercury Rising. Nature Medicine 13(8) (2007): 896-897.
4. Korenberg, Julie R et al. Williams Syndrome: A Neurogenetic Model of Human Behavior. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences (2005): 1-10 Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Developmental Disorders Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Developmental Disorders Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
“Developmental Disorders Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Developmental Disorders

Developmental Issues

...? Developmental Issues From birth, children start learning from around them. They watch their parents’ attitude; explore different television shows and role of people that is showed in children’s shows or cartoons. Childhood stage is an important stage of life. The development of brain is conceived during this time. Whatever a child learns from his surrounding, he tries to adopt it regardless of the fact whether the quality being adopted is good or bad. This study examines gender role stereotyping in children's programming and what messages these stereotypes might portray to the children watching it. From birth, children learn a lot from their surrounding. Their environmental factors also influence their lives. They do not adopt... Development...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment

Developmental Interviews

...?Developmental Interviews School Age (6-12) Industry versus Inferiority. The little girl I interviewed for this section was 8 years old; she’s in thethird grade, an honor student, with several awards for reading the most books in her class, an avid soccer player, and has a pet guinea pig named Eva, who just gave birth to triplets. She shared with me that she enjoys many hobbies, but reading, learning new languages and soccer are her favorites. Her mom lets her choose what she will wear to school each day, though not her bedtime or how much time she spends watching TV. When asked what should be done if she really needed something but her sister had it and wouldn’t share, she responded that she could always trade with her...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment

Schizophrenia, Psychosis, and Developmental Disorders

...Schizophrenia, Psychosis, and Developmental Disorders Brain is the most complex and the most intriguing organ in the human body. Its diversity never ceases to amaze mankind, and so do its disorders. As perplexing that its development is, the disorders during the course of its development are also complex and demand a deep understanding. The disorders involving brain were initially considered to be due to an impaired mental state, until recently it was proved that they are associated with the underlying brain abnormalities. These psychological disorders in turn also affect the physical illnesses. The ancient view of psychological...
9 Pages(2250 words)Term Paper

Developmental Disorders such as Dyslexia and ADHD are an Artificial Product of Society

...?Developmental disorders such as Dyslexia and ADHD are artificial product of the society Introduction Development refers to advancement in a Human beings, alongside growth, undergo development in different characteristics such as in mental capacity and locomotive potentials. Such developments occur within a particular stage beyond which an individual maintains the achieved level. Development therefore majorly occurs during a person’s childhood and earlier years of a youth. Developmental disorders however impair the normal pace of degree of development in a person. This paper seeks to discuss the opinion that developmental disorders such as Dyslexia and ADHD are artificial product of the society. The paper will explore factors... into...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay


...?American Psycho and Schizophrenia American Psycho became a cult ic on account of the chilling characterization of the titular “psycho” in the film, Patrick Bateman. He lived in Wall Street, worked for a financial company, lived a luxurious life and was dating a pretty society girl. In short he was an ideal American: rich, successful and handsome. It made the film’s narrative terrifyingly engaging because as he lived his perfect life, Bateman was also living a darker version of himself, a persona with spectacular anger issues, killing people at will. People might be entertained about the entire affair and about Bateman as a character but it closely resembles the life of person with serious psychological disorder that...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay


... believed that Piaget’s “scheme is too rigid and that many children manage concrete operation earlier than he thought.” I believe that I was able to think logically at this age. A typical example would be my ability to realize that my perspective about my neighbor was incorrect. I definitely needed to think logically to change that schema. Works Cited Atherton, J. Learning and Teaching:  Piagets developmental theory. (2005). 15 June 2007   Lefrancois, Guy. Psychology for Teaching. USA: Wadsworth, 2000. McDevitt, T. and Jeanne Ormrod. Child Development. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004.... grew up in Miami Florida with my mother and my father. I was the only child until age two when I became a big brother. A few months later I...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay


...Temple Grandin: “An Anthropologist on Mars” - A Discussion of Autism Temple Grandin is a success story that should be used as a warning against stereotyping people with disorders and labeling them as victims of a condition. Grandin has been able to achieve her doctorate degree as well as become a leading authority in her field. However, Grandin also suffers from autism, a condition that is often considered beyond hope of finding a way to successfully function within society. Using the example of Ms. Grandin, it can be understood that many conditions that displace a person from society should be considered for their true debilitating effects rather than for those which are defined through sociological structures that the...
4 Pages(1000 words)Research Paper

Student with pervasive developmental disorders

...with Pervasive Developmental Disorders Introduction Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD)is a medical condition characterized by different impairment degrees in social interactions and communication skills, and stereotyped, restricted and repetitive behavior patterns (Taylor, 2009). The most common PDD are Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Rhett’s Disorder, autism and Asperger’s syndrome. While majority of children make predictable milestones on the learning language path by the age of three, those suffering from PDD tend not to be able to use language in a normal way (Cohen and Volkmar, 1997). Most of them are not able to combine...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Developmental Disorders

...Developmental Disorders Template Instructions: Complete each of the following two tables found on pages 2 of this template. Autistic Disorder Symptoms of Impaired Social Interaction List the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) symptoms under the category, “impaired social interaction.” 1. Marked impairment in the use of multiple non verbal behaviors like eye contact. 2. Failure to strike peer relationships appropriate with developmental stage. 3. lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests or achievements with others 4. Lack of social or emotional reprocity. Symptoms of Impaired Communication List the DSM-IV-TR symptoms under the category, “impaired... the X...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment


...) observed that obesity increases the risk of other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, skeletal disorder s and respiratory diseases. A thorough assessment should be carried out which includes; a random or fasting glucose level, a plasma lipid profile, serum TSL levels, blood pressure, documentation of any physical effects (joint pains, breathing difficulties, sleep disturbance) and documentation of any psychological effects (low self esteem, depression) (Kaestner, 2009). Patient expectations: Patient’s expectations about weight loss are influenced by what they read and see in the media and others around them including healthcare professionals (Kielincher, Hill & Green, 2003). Practitioners are supposed to ensure...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Developmental Disorders for FREE!

Contact Us