HUman Rights(United Nations Declaration of Human Rightss 1948) - Essay Example

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On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights .All member states of the UN were and are required to abide by the Articles proclaimed in the Declaration. The first Article states that:
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Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights .All member states of the UN were and are required to abide by the Articles proclaimed in the Declaration. The first Article states that:
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
This statement is true yet even today there is no single state that has been able to adopt it in its entirety. Burma, Darfur, Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, and other trouble spots in the world see gross violations of this article with rampant injustices and violations of humanity. India, Pakistan and surrounding nations are hotbeds of caste and religious discriminations whereas the USA and EU nations regularly discriminate on the basis color and gender. The USA operates an inhuman detention centre at the US naval base in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba. In fact there is no nation in the world where all human beings are treated as equals.
Article 2 of the Declaration states that:
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. ….
According to special rapporteur of the UN Mr. Githu Muigai “An estimated 250 million people around the world are at risk of violations of civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights, including violence, marginalization and discrimination…”
This fact is applicable to all nations including the developed western societies and backward third world countries. Some governments go so far as to explicitly rationalize some forms of discrimination in the name of morals, religion, cultural equality or even national security.  Discrimination protected by law – for example, where the law limits religious freedoms (the decision to ban headscarves in France) or refuses to recognize Indigenous Peoples’ rights ( Aborigine mistreatment in Australia) effectively strips away human rights.( Discrimination, no date)
In the United States, the consequence of the Bush administrations decision to fight terrorism without regard to the basic human rights is a gross violation of this article. Thousands have been detained without fair trial because they belong to a particular religion or region. France is guilty of Islam phobia and Xenophobia is a major issue in all western societies. The under developed nations of Africa are guilty of genocide, and every conceivable violation of basic rights, other nations specially in the Indian subcontinent are guilty of caste, religious and gender discriminations that although prohibited by law, are in actuality the byword.
This is a sorry but true state of affairs yet it must be noted that Article1 and 2 are impossible but necessary and fundamental ideals to further the cause of human rights world over. Even if achievement of these basic ideals is a Utopian dream, it is the through the pursuit of this dream that we can hope to bring justice and prosperity to all the peoples of the world.
Article 13 states that:
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
(2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.
Freedom of movement is respected in the constitutions of nearly all member states of UN. With proper documentation all citizens have the right to return to that state at any time; and also to travel to, reside in and work in any part of the state the without interference from the state.
However there are some countries that restrict this right to freedom of movement. For example, foreign students in Russia are issued only an entry visa on admission to University there, and must obtain an exit visa to return to their country. Burma places many restrictions on movement of its citizens who require ID’s to buy simple bus, train tickets etc. In the United States travel to Cuba is restricted. The mainland residents of China are required to apply for special permits in order to enter the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau and SAR residents require a Home Return Permit to visit the mainland. Saudi Arabia requires all resident foreigners, but not citizens, to obtain an exit visa before leaving.
Article 13 is a fundamental right that has mixed success in its implementation across the world. More effort is required to keep up and improve this success.
Muigai, Githu (no date) “Communities Empowered to Resist Discrimination and Exclusion” DURBAN REVIEW CONFERENCE Read More
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