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The monetary cost is calculable, however. In 2001, the estimated cost of adult depression was estimated at more than £9 billion, £370 million of this was a direct result of treatment costs. In 2000, more than 100 million total working days were lost in addition to 2615 deaths attributed to depression (Thomas & Morris, 2003).
The Greek philosopher Epictetus probably described it best when he said, “It is not circumstances themselves that trouble people, but their judgments about those circumstances” (Seddon, 2002). Cognitive behavioural therapy in essence, seeks to alter the perceptions of circumstances. Cognitive therapy, according to Aaron T. Beck, “... is based on an underlying theoretical rationale that an individual’s affect and behaviour are largely determined by the way in which he structures the world” (Dubord, 2004: 1). At one time this was simply referred to as behaviour therapy but today is known as cognitive behaviour therapy. This discussion outlines CBT and its approach to the treatment of depression.
The primary interventions preferred in the treatment of chronic clinical depression are behavioural in nature. Efforts to augment a person’s sense of self-worth and to re-connect them socially through physically exertive exercises is a widely used and effective strategy for reversing behaviour associated with depression. Because of the behavioural nature of the condition and the treatment, it is strongly recommended that those in the health care services employ the same vigilance regarding behavioural treatments as they would prescribe drugs used as treatments. When the depressive cognitions are restructured, this generally increases the disposition benefits for an individual and positively affects changes in behaviour. There are many examples of depressive cognitive statements offered by patients that doctors often hear such as, ‘I can’t do anything to improve my outlook on life,’ ‘I’m
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Ellis (1962) expounded on this, stating that irrational beliefs is a contributing factor to mental disorders. Beck’s cognitive theory (1967, 1976) theorizes that mental disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are maintained by distorted thoughts at three levels.
The principles are that the therapy requires a thorough therapeutic relationship in a two-way effort between the qualified, supportive and empathic CBT practitioners and the client; and relies on the inductive method, a scientific methodology using logic and reasoning (Whitfiled and Davidson, 2007).
From his perceptive, the author convincingly presents the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The model was formulated around principles of aiding diagnosis, fostering communication among professionals, boosting psychopathology research as well as evaluating the best treatment towards the diagnosis.
Clinical hypnosis is mainly used for weight loss, smoking cessation, or self improvement. To define, “clinical hypnosis is described as working in a similar way to the natural process of memory, by either kick-starting a memory association or re-creating an emotional link” (James 2010, p.40).
In clinical hypnotherapy, the expected outcomes are mainly changes in patients’ responses to treatment, their attitudes, behaviours, thoughts and feelings. Behavioural therapies are often implemented for subjects in hypnosis, a situation in which a patient’s psychological state and features are seemingly similar to sleep.
CBT is an amalgamation of behavioural and cognitive conjecture (Olatunji, Cisler, & Deacon, 2010). It is a widely accepted therapy and finds application in dealing with temper, apprehensions, persona, eating habits, substance abuse and psychotic disorders (Butler, Chapman, Forman, & Beck, 2006; Olatunji et al., 2010).
Research literature has suggested that CBT is one of the leading orientations of psychotherapy (Roth & Fonagy, 2005) and in it one finds a rather unique class of psychological intervention as the entire therapy culls out and depends on a delicate balance of applying concepts both from the cognitive and behavioural psychological models of human behaviour .In fact there is such a wide variety of psychological models of human behaviour that CBT is considered to be a very fertile approach in tackling numerous situations needing intervention.
The hope was that during her confinement she would receive treatment and rehabilitation. This is not the first time in a psychiatric using for her behaviour. She has been admitted as an adolescent because she was threatening and aggressive to her
The theory was developed by the psychoanalyst Albert Ellis in 1956. The theory is based on the observations of Ellis that when patients changed their beliefs about themselves, the problems they face and their concept of the world, they tended