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Identification of spatial patterns of crime has seen the promotion of several theories and has been the subject of many philosophical debates in an attempt to help explain their manifestation. According to some crime analysts, models drawn from studying animal behaviour may even help predict human behaviour. Crime analysts are borrowing from game hunting and the study of predatory movement. Crime maps are used to record the locations of incidents in order to help predict where criminals are going to strike next, are used by police throughout the world. This paper discusses some of the methods used to identify patterns and trends in crime in the United Kingdom.
According to Cole (1995) the tools of the disciplined futurists are a sound methodology, a sense of history and theory, knowledge of key factual data, and the ability to examine crime in the contexts of broader social, political, technological, and economic trends. The data sources and methods used to guide forecasting include crime statistics; surveys of experts, practitioners, and the general public; literature reviews; scenario writing; and statistical (time series) models that extrapolate crime trends into the future.
Mathematical models that explain the behaviour of observed past values can be used to forecast future crime trends by projecting a time series analysis of crime trends into the future. In general, the source of quantitative time-series forecasting is police- and victim-reported crime statistics. Modelling consists of describing the causal sequence of variables and the prediction of their interactions. Any predictive model endeavours to show a relationship between certain independent (predictor) variables and a dependent variable (i.e., the criterion to be predicted).
The principal strength of quantitative models, in relation to qualitative forecasts, is that descriptions of future crime rates are much more specific and precise, although not
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This research aims to evaluate and present gastronomic tourism and its importance in hospitality. Gastronomy is even more powerful element which attracts the visitors to visit a certain location. Like other fields, the hospitality is also facing the challenges of globalization especially in respect of gastronomic tourism and it is not less than a challenge to respond to globalization and constant change of demand
A crime is an act of public wrong1 (William, William & Herschel, 1996, p. 1) resulted due to moral and ethical disorder or retardation. The crime, by the time of its origin, has been a chief concern of the society. Every society, of every country, has made precautionary and lawful actions against crimes.
Global Trends in Crime.
The current global trends in crime are largely based on the current digital and the widely available electronic technologies which have infiltrated almost all aspects of our lives. These technologies have transformed theft, fraud, and stalking to the more sophisticated crimes of internet scamming, phishing, cyberstalking, cyber bullying, hacking, identity theft, credit card fraud and other crimes generally labeled under internet or cyber crimes.
Intelligence is essential when investigating organized crime. This is because; these criminal organizations have established rules and can operate with a military-like precision, with clearly defined chain of command. Several laws and decrees have been legislated over the past few years aimed at fighting drug trafficking and increasing penalties against drug dealers, drug traffickers and other drug related offenders.
It has gained the significance of a deadly tool being used by criminals through out the world. And different legislations are being passed all over the world to decrease the use of a knife as a weapon. In doing so the UK has passed similar legislations which are aimed to decrease its use a weapon.
The information presented in these reports is supplied by two resources that include reporting from police across the country and British Crime Survey (BCS). The statistics computed by these resources present a contradicting indication of crime levels in the country and have been criticised by many for their limited scope and indifferences on certain issues which diminishes their legitimacy and accuracy as measurement.
It is positively believe that to understand the past, is to understand the present and the future to come in today's challenging era, where people are committing acts of crime everywhere (i.e. crime against person, the white-collar and e-commerce crimes are very challenging acts and requires the up-to-date technology to grasp the criminals).