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In this conformation there is no steric strain and no torsional strain.
Due to the migration of electrons towards the more electronegative nucleus in a bond between two different elements the molecules become polarized. In larger molecules a number of poles form and this causes some parts of the molecule to attract and some to repel each other. In the butane molecule both ends of the molecule are rotating around the C-C bond and take different configurations (these are constantly changing.
Steric strain is caused by the crowding together of groups – as explained above the groups are forced to approach each other till they touch, but because of their similar polarity they are under forces of repulsion also. This leads to the molecule possessing extra potential energy, this energy is called steric strain.
a. In 1870, Markonikov laid down a basic principle of chemistry that holds till today. The Markonikov Rule states that when a hydrogen halide (Hydrochloric acid, HCl being an example) reacts with an asymmetrically substituted alkene the hydrogen attaches itself to the carbon atom that has the larger number of its hydrogen atoms substituted. The halogen automatically attaches itself to the carbon atom having the least number of its hydrogens substituted. An example of such an addition reaction:
b. Enantiomers are two molecules of the same chemical that are the mirror image of each other, like our hands, they are similar but yet not the same and can not be superimposed on each other. Such molecules are called Enantiomers. They are not isomers and are not different from each other in any way except in their configuration.
c. An Emperical formula gives the proportion of the constituent elements in the molecule but does not give the exact composition of the molecule. The empirical formula represents the mole fraction/ ratio of each element in the compound. For example the empirical formula may show that there is hydrogen and
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Even households generate hazardous waste from items such as batteries, used computer equipment, and leftover paints or pesticides.
The waste can harm humans, animals, and plants if they encounter these toxins buried in the ground, in stream runoff, in groundwater that supplies drinking water, or in floodwaters, as happened after Hurricane Katrina.
One mole of beryllium weighs 9 grams, therefore we have 0.1 mole of beryllium if the mass is 0.9, one mole of oxygen weighs 16 grams therefore we have 7.3/16 moles of oxygen and finally we have 4.5 grams of aluminium therefore we have 4.5/27 moles of aluminium.
ton in his atomic theory states that atoms of any one element are all exactly like in every respect including masses but different from atoms of every other element. According to this theory since ethyl alcohol and dimethyl ether have the same composition by masses and exactly
These brain functions are responsible for mental, emotional and motor skills. Irregular activity on neuro-transmitters in the brain would be one of the reasons for mental and emotional disorders that may affect person’s emotional and physical behavior. Changes in
t to be accurate because the minimum measure of mass according to the apparatus is 0.0001, therefore if the measure was exactly 11.439 g then this should have been written as 11.4390 g.
The Millikan experiment is used to measure the electric charge of electrons by carefully
The American Thyroid Association (2005b) added that there is no single best treatment for patients with hyperthyroidism since the treatment may depend on factors such as age, type and severity of hyperthyroidism,
They are used as catalysts, electrolytes and solvents in a number of industries. This paper will try to enumerate the importance of ionic liquids and their applications in pharmaceutical and other industries.
In comparison to molecular liquids
Q4. NO+ ligand would form a bent i.e. V-shaped geometry in a metal complex. More electrons are pulled to N in the radical hence the metallic ion would be attracted to the partially negatively charged N atom. The lone pair electron in the N atom cause attraction of positively