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Les changements philosophique etaientelles au cuaser par les emeutes en Mai 1968 - Essay Example

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Je voudrais parler aujourd'hui au sujet de changements philosophiques qu' ont survenu aprs les vnements sociaux et politiques des anes 1960 - 1970. Ces vnements ont constitu l'arrire -plan des changements radicals au domain philosophique , peut-tre le commencement d'une vraie rupture avec la tradition , qui s'est , ensuite , amplifie d'une manire definitive avec le dbut du postmodernisme.
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Les changements philosophique etaientelles au cuaser par les emeutes en Mai 1968
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Download file to see previous pages Pour Baudrillard l'poque contmporaine se caracterise par l'abandon de la ralit, et cet abandon s'est ralis par une vitesse de liberation semblable celle ncessit par un corps pour s'chapper la gravit d'une planete. Cette vitesse de liberation est dtrmine par l'acceleration de la technologie , et aussi par la vitesse des autres changes - conomique , politique , sexuel .
La vitesse de liberation impose par le dveloppment scintifique a dbut l'poque duquel on vient de parler. Le plus important vnement philosophique qui s'est produit cette poque- l fut l'apparition du structuralisme thoris au domain philosophique par Michel Foucault .
Le changement , en bref , est rerprsent par la substitution de la notion de idologie , comme reprsentation du monde , avec celle de structure , ou , dans la trminologie foulcauldienne , " l'archologie du savoir " . Ce terme parle par lui-mme de cette rvolution du pense - l'archologie se focalise sur la structure du savoir , ca veut dire , la philosophie et la pense en gnral n'examinent plus seulement les ides et les formes , mais aussi la structure dinamique de choses , ce qui transforme toute pense en discours .
LaLa thorie du discours de Foucault vient de remplacer , ainsi , les philosophies idologiques de Marx , Sartre et Althusser. Au coeur de ces philosophies il y avait l'humanisme , qui a pris des formes diffrents pour chaque d'entre eux.
Le fait le plus important a signaler ici est que toute ces philosophies ont cherch , comme idologies , trouver un but pratique pour leur thorie , soit-il politique ou social ou conomique.
Louis Althusser (1986) a essay de thoriser le marxisme , en observant le changement essentiel qui s'est produit , a un certain moment dans ce courrant , et qui a dtrmin la transformation de l'humanisme initial , qu'il nomme "humanisme rationaliste -liberal " en un " anti-humanisme thorique ".
Cette transformation du statut de l'humanisme est survenue quand prtentions thoriques ont t rejetes en reconnaissant la fonction pratique de l'idologie . (Althusser , 1986: 236).
Cela a signifi aussi la rupture de avec la philosophie de l'homme , et au mme temps , avec toute anthropologie ou humanisme philosophiques , ainsi comme elles taient dfini la premire tape du marxisme .
Ainsi , le marxisme et au fond une idologie , et concepte est pour Althusser indispensable quand il s'agit de la socit humaine :
Seule une conception idologique du monde a pu imaginer des socits sans idologies , et admettre l'ide utopique d'un monde ou l' idologie disparaitrait sans laisser de trace, pour etre remplace par la science. (Althusser , 1986: 239 )
L'idologie ne peut pas disparaitre du milieu de la socit humaine , et se manifeste toujours en un ou pluiseurs de ses formes : morale , rligion , art.
De mme, l'existentialisme de Sartre a chrch s'approcher l'idologie marxiste , en affirmant la philosophie de l'action , et la "condamnation de l'homme libert " , ce que veut dire que l'homme , a toujours la possibilit du choix , cette chose l tant la principale cause de l'anxiet pour l'homme; donc , l'homme est ce qui'le fait :
Quand nous disons que l'homme se choisit , nous entendons que chacun d'entre nous se choisit , mais par l nous ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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