StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, or simply Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), is a non-invasive and non-destructive analytical technique that is used widely in the medical field for studying metabolic changes in brain tumors, Alzheimer's disease, seizure disorders, strokes, depression and other related diseases affecting the brain…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER94.2% of users find it useful
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry"

Download file to see previous pages A large variety information is obtainable through a nuclear MRS spectrum.
Much like the way infrared spectroscopy is used to identify functional groups, the analysis of a 1-dimensional nuclear MRS spectrum provides information on the number and type of chemical entities in a molecule. The impact of MRS on the natural sciences has been substantial. It can, among other things, be used to study complex mixtures of analytes, understand dynamic effects like change in reaction mechanisms, pressure and temperature, and investigate protein and nucleic acid structures and functions. It is a method that can be applied to a wide variety of samples, both in solution and solid state.
MRS is a tool used by biochemists for medical research projects, and by doctors to gather useful clinical information which can be helpful in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. It applications in the field of medicine are, in general, within the scope of detecting neurological disorders. For instance, it is used to identify Neural Progenitor Cells in the live human brain without any risky surgery of any sort (Manganas, et al., 2007). Neurological infections require immediate identification and treatment. Medical physicists and doctors have always found it difficult to accurately and rapidly diagnose such infections in both children and adults. MRS, however, has opened up new avenues and is now used as a safe, non-surgical method for the identification of brain infections like brain abscess and meningitis.
Outside neurology, MRS is used to measure phosphate, phosphocreatine, ATP and phosphodiesters in fibromyalgic muscle tissue (Sprott et al., 2000). Furthermore, this technique is currently being investigated to study a number of other diseases in the human body, most notable of which include cancer, epilepsy and Huntington's Chorea.
MRS methods can further be divided on the basis of the specific procedures and principles used during detection and investigation. Correlation spectroscopy is one of the several types of 2-dimensional nuclear MRS techniques. Others types of NMR spectroscopy techniques include Exchange spectroscopy, J-spectroscopy, Protein Nuclear MRS, Total Correlation spectroscopy, Solid-state Nuclear MRS, and Nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (Wuthrich, 1990).
Solid-state nuclear MRS is often related to structural investigations of membrane proteins, protein fibrils, polymers, and inorganic chemical analysis. Protein nuclear MRS, on the other hand, has major applications in pure structural biology, where it is used to obtain high resolution 3-dimensional protein structure and dynamics, much like what is produced by X-ray crystallography albeit in a less destructive manner using much lesser energy.
The entire phenomenon of magnetic resonance is a result of the fact that a spinning charge generates a magnetic field around it having a magnetic moment proportional to the spin. When an external magnetic field is applied to a sample, two possible spin states exist for any atom- +1/2 and -1/2. The magnetic moment of the lower energy spin state (+1/2) is aligned with the external field, and that of the higher energy spin state (-1/2) is opposed to the external field. The difference in energies of the two spin states is dependent on the external magnetic field strength, and is usually kept very small. Though the spin states have ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1533924-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectrometry
(Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words)
https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1533924-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectrometry.
“Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1533924-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectrometry.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry

Functional magnetic resonance imaging

...? Functional magnetic resonance imaging Introduction Functional magnetic resonance imaging or fMRI is a process of mapping brain activities by analysing the modifications in blood flow and oxygenation levels that vary according to neural activities taking place within the brain (Huettel, Song and McCarthy, 2009). With increased activities in a particular area of the brain, there is an increase in blood flow to that particular location. Subsequently more oxygen is necessary for consumption, to meet the rise in blood flow. fMRI techniques can be used for revealing which part of the brain is active (for specific mental activities) through activation maps. The basic fMRI technique, developed by Seiji Ogawa and Ken Kwong in the 1990s, makes use...
11 Pages(2750 words)Essay

Breast Magnetic Resonance

...? Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Insert (s) Breast Magnetic Resonance Introduction Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the non-invasive medical procedures that is increasingly being used in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Magnetic resonance Imaging involves the use of powerful magnetic fields and radio frequencies to produce computerized and detailed images of soft tissues, organs and bones, as well as any other internal body structure. Unlike some imaging techniques, such as X-ray or computed tomography, MRI does not require the use of ionizing radiation. Despite recent advances, MR imaging still has a number of limitations particularly with regard to its specificity and sensitivity. Breast Magnetic...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Magnetic Resonance Instrumentation

... magnetic fields. Q8. The causes of undesirable sounds produced by magnetic resonance imaging at runtime are due to gradient coil experiencing magnetic forces and torques when being pulsed. The reason is that as the coils get physically restrained, the energy associated with the magnetic forces is released acoustically as loused sound. The undesirable sound can be reduced by: Designing a gradient coil that are torque and force balanced; Shaping the gradient pulses to reduce sound produced; Using acoustically absorbent formers for the coils; Encasing the gradient coils in an evacuated chamber so that waves of the sound are not compatible. Q9. The main cause of nerve stimulation due to magnetic resonance imaging is the slew rate push...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Improve the Magnetic Resonance Imaging

...? Improvements in the Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging ID Number & Total Number of Words: 1,000 1. Describe the change you hope to implement. Aside from problems related to setting appointments for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) procedures, communication problems can also occur between the MRI department and other radiology departments and pharmacy. Furthermore, the available MRI machines used in our hospital are quite old. Considering these problems, several changes I wish to implement includes the process of designing and implementing the use of a more efficient appointment procedure, establishing an organizational culture that gives importance to two-way communication line, and the need to persuade the top management to consider...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment

Magnetic Resonance Image(MRI)

...? Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic Resonance Imaging has emerged as an important medical diagnostics tool in the last 20 years. The procedure consists of exposing the human body to a short duration pulse of very strong magnetic field. Under the influence of this magnetic field, Hydrogen protons in the water and fat molecules in the human body which are randomly aligned orient themselves in the direction of the magnetic field and spin on their axes. When the external magnetic pulse is removed, the spinning protons induce an electric signal in pick up coils from which an image of the internal tissue is created digitally. MRI diagnostics produce clearer images of soft tissue and blood flow inside arteries and veins than ultrasound images...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Magnetic resonance imaging

...? Magnetic Resonance Imaging Perfusion Introduction Perfusion refers to the passage of fluid through the blood vessels or even lymphatic system to a tissue. Thus, perfusion scanning is the process of observing the perfusion activities, recording and quantifying the results. A wide range of medical imaging modalities has emerged that utilize perfusion application in a variety of medical fields. Perfusion applications are used to assess the distribution of blood to a vascular bed. Either endogenous or exogenous tracers can be utilized to regulate hemodynamic quantities, for instance blood movement, blood capacity, and the average time it takes for the tracer molecule to be passed through the tissue, or the average time of transit (Luypaert...
11 Pages(2750 words)Assignment

Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging

... The advancements in imaging modalities were able to increase the understanding about the various biological systems and how these work together in living organisms. In terms of the resolution of images, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is considered to be one of the most advanced, mainly due to its use of magnetic field in detecting the various differences in organ and tissue densities (Jones, 2011). With the discovery of peculiar characteristics of water and how it affects the movement of molecules through diffusion, aside from relying on the magnetic field generated by various molecules in cells, the additional characteristics of particle diffusion in living cells were able to contribute to the greater advancement of the use of MRI...
14 Pages(3500 words)Assignment

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

...? Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) is a method to scan the body’s internal organs mostly used in the medical facilities to cast an image of internal body systems and internal parts. The technique is also termed as the Magnetic Resonance Tomography (MRT). MRI is capable to generate clearer and more detained images as compared to the X-ray or Ultrasound scanning techniques. The physics behind the MRI scanning involves the complex nuclear physics and magnetic directivity and resonance. A MRI scanning device is fairly a large device, which is able to hold a person in it. The patient lies in a strong magnetic field, where the magnetic field resonate the atomic nuclei. An altered radio frequency is used to alter...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technique

...Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnetic Resonance Imaging This is an advanced imaging technique used in the field of medicine under radiology. The technique enhances visualization of internal structures; it uses a property of nuclear magnetism resonance to visualize nuclei of body atoms. The technique uses highly powerful magnetic field to align atomic nuclei, after which the radio frequency systematically alters the alignment of these nuclei. The activity produces a rotating magnetic field, which is detectable using a scanner. The information is then read recorded and to create an image of the scanned body. The magnetic field causes the nuclei in different locations to rotate with different speeds using gradients. By the use of gradients...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay

Why Did North Korea Acquire Nuclear Weapons

Is there verifiable evidence of nuclear bombs, the one that could be carried by missiles and be fired to as far as the United States, if indeed there is an admission or confession? 
From the start, a state that would become a nuclear-armed state would begin with a nuclear-energy program. Then on and on, after acquiring the capability and material to produce energy, that state would proceed, secretly or clandestinely, to produce other materials to produce nuclear weapons. A question maybe asked here: is there a precise reason why states want to acquire nuclear weapons? Or is it the ambition of non-nuclear power states to acquire nuclear weapons or become nuclear-powered states?
Erich Marquardt (2003) in his Asia Time...
17 Pages(4250 words)Assignment

IAEA's Development on Solving Proliferation of Nuclear Material and Weapons Trafficking In Former USSR & Current Russia

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has developed various measures to report and control the illicit movement of radioactive materials in the former Soviet Union and present Russia. There has been an unprecedented increase in the smuggling of radioactive materials in the region since 2000.

IAEA maintains the Illicit Trafficking Database (ITDB) in collaboration with 81 nations that voluntarily offer details about unauthorized purchase and sale of radioactive and nuclear materials. Between 1993 and 2004, the ITDB report maintained by IAEA has found 662 incidents of nuclear smuggling. Most of these incidents involved the trafficking of low-grade materials which cannot be used to make weapons. However, there have been...
13 Pages(3250 words)Case Study

Decision Making in a Nuclear Reactor Emergency

...Managing the Unexpected Introduction Disasters can be ified into two based on the nature of it; natural disasters and man made disasters. It isdifficult for us to manage or prevent natural disasters like flood, thunder, earthquake, tsunamis etc because of the unexpected occurrence and the severity of such disasters. On the other hand, manmade disasters can be reduced or prevented if we take some precautions. “Man-made disasters are events which, either intentionally or by accident cause severe threats to public health and well-being” (Man-Made Disasters, n. d). Even though, proper precautionary measures taken, it is quiet possible that due to unforeseen reasons, disasters can occur. Most of the manmade disasters are related to the nuclear...
9 Pages(2250 words)Case Study

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

...Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on prematurely born babies: Can it really predict the babies’ future neurodevelopmental outcomes? CET 116 Computer Applications for Technology Abstract Premature birth is a leading public-health concern due to its growing prevalence in conjunction with the numerous occurrences of consequent risks in the behavior and mental development confronted by surviving newborns. Magnetic Resonance Imaging is becoming extensively accessible and gradually vital for producing images of the brain of prematurely born babies. It is successful in the assessment of the brain development in these infants (“Neurobiological Determinants of Human Communication: Prematurity and Early Childhood”).This paper will address...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Nuclear Power as a Green and Sustainable Energy Source

...Nuclear Power as a ‘Green’ and Sustainable Energy Source Introduction The origin of humanity’s quest for energy sources started at the penultimate sources – the sun. It is a natural reaction to use the earth’s resources in search for life’s comfort and development. Resources such as wind, water, and wood were innovatively used to create energy needed to provide warmth, cook food, and assist in work-related tasks, to explore the world and to travel in far away lands, to manufacture, produce and develop. Concurrently, technological growth and advancement required magnanimous amounts of sources of energy that created the risk of nearly exhausting the natural sources of fuel. The result is to look for alternative and renewable energy sources...
8 Pages(2000 words)Literature review

Is It Time to Revive Nuclear Power

...Is it Time to Revive Nuclear Power? Roll No: No: Submitted: Is it Time to Revive Nuclear Power? Introduction Power is a basic component of our life today. We are unable to survive in the modern world without power. Power plants are established to generate power from different sources. A basic power plant only employs law of conservation of energy, which states that energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but it can be changed from one form to another. A thermal power plant generally converts thermal energy to mechanical energy and then electrical energy (Brugging and Van der Zwaan, 2002). A nuclear power plant is basically a thermal power plant that converts thermal energy into electrical energy but the main difference between...
8 Pages(2000 words)Coursework

Why Nuclear Weapons Should Be Banned

... Why nuclear weapons should be banned Nuclear weapons pose the greatest threat ever to human beings and are the most erratically atrocious weapons ever discovered. The cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki stand as reminders of what destruction and mayhem nuclear weapons can do just in a flash. This implies that any use of nuclear weapons poses immense catastrophic effects and there is no efficient humanitarian response that would be possible to counter the consequences of radiation on affected people which usually results in death as well as suffering of the involved people several decades after the first explosion. Thus abolishing nuclear weapons is a pressing humanitarian inevitability and their banning and elimination is the only assurance...
7 Pages(1750 words)Assignment

The Environmental Risks Associated with Nuclear Power

...NUCLEAR POWER Introduction Nuclear power is the power energy that connects and harnesses the powerful forces that usually hold together the atom nucleus. The nuclear power plant gets its energy from the physical processes of fission of the uranium atoms. This plant is effective as either cannot release the gases into the atmosphere such as the sulphur, carbon, nitrogen and other gases or byproducts of combustion like ashes that may cause a climate change, ozone layer destruction, acidization of rain, large cities contamination and the greenhouse effects (OECD, 2007). The nuclear plant produces electricity by boiling water into steam, which turns the turbines in order for the electricity production. The nuclear power has both...
9 Pages(2250 words)Term Paper

Nuclear Energy and Radiation Wastes Management

... Nuclear Energy and radiation wastes management Introduction In modern times, nuclear power has gained popularity as the most reliable source of energy in most of the developed countries. One of the factors that have led to the increase in use of nuclear energy across the world is the fact that it is thought to be a clean and efficient source compared to other forms like petroleum. Many countries have actually been doing research and investments in the creation and use of this energy in o0rder to bring down cost of energy, thus increasing the rate of their economic activities. Nuclear power refers to the way nuclear reactors are used to produce nuclear energy, thereby generating electricity, which is the n utilized for various domestic...
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper

Global Issues of Nuclear Energy

... Essay-Global Issues The world is progressing at a very fast space where man has now reached the moon and na chnology is used in new scientific innovations. The earth has an abundant supply of energy itself, but sooner or later this energy is going to be completely consumed because of the fast pace at which the world population is growing and increasing energy demands. Nuclear energy is an alternate source of energy that is being brought into use by the global community to tackle the issue of the energy crisis. This research paper discusses how the generation of nuclear energy is harmful to the society when carelessly dealt with. The main focus is how past nuclear accidents have occurred and their impact. It also discusses possible...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Magnetic Field Tomography Based On Magneto Eencephalography

...Magnetic Field Tomography Based On Magneto Eencephalography Basics of Finite Element Method: Finite element method or FEM is basically a numerical technique that is used to solve different kinds of equations like a differential or integral equation. Since its introduction, FEM has been regularly applied to a wide range of physical problems like boundary value problems. It stands distinguished in respect that it first divides a problem into smaller parts. After dividing a big problem into simpler parts which are called finite elements, variational methods are used to address all elements by reducing associated error function. FEM also focuses on connecting many finite elements to form a complex equation. This method of solving equations...
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry for FREE!

Contact Us