Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Energy Conversion and Management: Refrigeration System for inter modal containers - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Transportation of temperature sensitive cargo requires the use of refrigerated containers. These refrigerated containers are ideal for inter modal freight transport and is termed as reefer. These reefers have an internal refrigeration unit and they actually operate on external power provided through the fuel based power generators…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.2% of users find it useful
Energy Conversion and Management: Refrigeration System for inter modal containers
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Energy Conversion and Management: Refrigeration System for inter modal containers"

Download file to see previous pages The liquid carbon dioxide based system is also very much popular. Based on Cryogenic concepts, this type of cooling system has the capability of freezing things at the level of 30 to 50 K and is very much environment friendly. But the latest technology in field of refrigeration systems is the Closed-Cycle Air Refrigeration Technology or CCAR (NIST). CCAR is based on the thermodynamic process termed as reverse Baryton Cycle which had been almost more than a century before and the refrigeration system working in jet planes were based on the same only. As an open cycle refrigeration system, this air based refrigeration technique is very much inefficient but the same air being used as a refrigerant for CCAR while using the advance technologies and much improved compressor, expander and seal, can be an excellent for any refrigeration plant. It can be used in food processing units, food storage plants, pharmaceutical industry and above all for the freight transport of intermodal containers as well as natural gases or transport gases (NIST).
Mechanical refrigeration system has been the first refrigeration system which has been used for any commercial purpose. ...
HFC-134a, HCFC-123 and HCFC-124 are the some of the refrigerants which are very much suitable for mechanical refrigeration.
Mechanical refrigeration cycle (WOU)
The mechanical refrigeration systems are based on the principle that absorption of heat by a fluid (refrigerant) as it changes from a liquid to a gas lowers the temperature of the objects around it. Compression system based refrigeration is employed in electric home refrigerators and commercial installations and involves a compressor which is being controlled by a thermostat and forcing the vaporized refrigerants to pass through a condenser by exerting pressure on a vaporized refrigerant (engel & Boles). At the condenser the vaporized gas loses heat and liquefies and is again moved through the coils of the refrigeration compartment where it again vaporizes there by drawing heat from whatever object are present in the compartment (Cavilini). The refrigerant then passes back to the compressor, and again the same cycle is repeated. Since the refrigerants have to go for quick vaporization and again getting cooled into liquid form. The temperature and pressure range of HCFCs and HFCs make it suitable for thermodynamically suitable for any mechanical refrigeration with much lower ozone depletion rate than CFCs ("Refrigeration").
Temperature entropy diagram of a compression vapour-compression refrigerating cycle
(engel &. Boles)
The effectiveness of the system can be measured by using the formula given below with all measurement of temperatures being done.
The condenser design is being optimized according to the choice of refrigerant. The thermal performance of the different refrigerants condensing at the sides of the tubes is being ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Energy Conversion and Management: Refrigeration System for inter modal Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Energy Conversion and Management: Refrigeration System for Inter Modal Essay)
“Energy Conversion and Management: Refrigeration System for Inter Modal Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Energy Conversion and Management: Refrigeration System for inter modal containers

Conversion of Energy

... Energy There are three fundamental ways by which conversion of energy from one form into another may be carried out. The action of gravitational forces, electric and magnetic force fields, as well as frictional forces may collectively account for one of these ways as when potential energy becomes kinetic energy the moment an object is acted upon by gravity as it falls freely or when charged particles transfer energy between electric and magnetic fields causing electric current in a conductor to enable vibration of molecules so that electric potential is further transformed to energy in the form of heat. Another way is through the atomic emission and absorption of light photons to generate photothermal effect producing thermal energy...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Energy Conversion System

...?NORTHUMBRIA School of Computing, Engineering & Information Sciences EN0201: Energy Conversion Systems Assignment 1of Assignment weighting: 15% of total unit (Total marks = 50) Learning outcome You are expected to show the understanding of 1. the mathematical principles of model and prototype testing for the solution and analysis of engineering problems. 2. the fundamental steam cycle, reversibility and the second law. 3. Answer all three questions Question 1 A bubble is rising with a velocity through a liquid of density , viscosity and surface tension . If the typical bubble diameter is and acceleration due to gravity , show, using Buckingham pi theorem, that the velocity can be expressed by the following functional relation...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment

System Conversion Methods

System Conversion Methods Table of Contents System Conversion 3 A.Parallel Conversion 3 B.Direct Conversion 4 C.Pilot Conversion 4 D.Phased Conversion 5 2.Widely Accepted Conversion Method 6 3.References 7 1. System Conversion Once a system is developed, whether simple or complex, it requires successful implementation alongside being workable. Conversion is the transition process wherein the hardware, software and files of the existing system are converted to match the new system (Williams, 2005). Thus, it is the process through which the new system is put into operation (Shelly et. al, 2008). There are four methods of converting the existing system with a new one; direct, parallel, phased and pilot. A. Parallel Conversion This co...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper

Energy Efficient Food System

... Task Energy efficient food system Fossil resources have been the main form of energy production for the food system for many years, indirectly through utilizing of machinery, pesticides and fertilizers and directly through energy use in crop management both with an aim of increasing food production. Apparently, the increase in food demand in the recent years has seen the food-energy relationship enter a new era which could prove fossil resources as an insufficient mode of energy production in the food system. A food system here refers to all the work, research and processes involved in making sure that a population is well fed incorporating a balanced diet. Form this explanation; it is very clear that any food system is affected not only...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Pelamis (Wave energy system)

...?Pelamis (Wave energy system) One of the greatest strengths of the Pelamis wave energy converter is the fact that it has minimum impact on the environment. The energy produced is clean and it produces no polluting chemicals or greenhouse gases. It is potentially the most environmental benign form of electricity production, as it has a small environmental footprint due to the fact that it remains stationary during performance. It is more efficient this way and the kind of marine growth which causes drag to other moving vessels is negligible for the converter. Anti-foulants are also limited by the fact that the converter is semi-submerged in the water. It also requires minimal onsite construction which makes it have less impact on the nearby...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Multi Modal Speech Communications

...Multi-Modality in Communication of Multi-Modality in Communication Multimodality is a scientific term that describes the inter-disciplinary connections used in communication. More specifically it is the study of how humans communicate and interpret the many nuances of language. How humans exchange and interpret language is more than the exchange of words but involves speech, gestures, sounds, background images, and suggestive smells. Social science study of how humans communicate and interpret datum is a complex process. Understanding how humans perceive information enables advertisers and marketers to use the multi-faceted process to sell products and goods. This paper will dissect two current commercials to demonstrate how... in...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Energy Conversion and Integrated Solid Waste Management

... Energy Conversion and Integrated Solid Waste Management Energy could be recovered from waste. First, the combustible solid waste could be burned to produce energy. Secondly, waste could be processed so as to improve its heat value, make its handling in the combustor easier and thus produce energy. Finally, waste could be processed and combined with other fuels, then co-fired to produce energy (Worrell & Vesilind, 2012). Refuse could be burned either through mass burn combustors, that is as it is, or through processing leading to production of refuse-derived fuel. According to Worrell and Vesilind (2012), refuse combustion reduces the volume of refuse by 90%. Nonetheless, the resultant combustion ash leads to concentration of inorganic...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Refrigeration Laboratory

Additionally, high water inlet temperatures substantially affect R134a temperature. Consequently, high water inlet temperatures led to rise in intermediate temperatures. In addition to that, optimal temperature is directly proportional to ambient temperature (Neese and Oravetz, 2003). This temperature in turn affects evaporation temperature of cycles that occur at low stages hence inducing the increase of optimal temperature.
Result also indicated that there was a correlation between coefficient of performance, water inlet and ambient temperatures. As a result, coefficient of performance deteriorates at high water inlet temperatures and low ambient temperatures and vice versa and it is a common phenomenon in air water heat pum...
8 Pages(2000 words)Lab Report

Refrigeration cycle

...Refrigeration cycle Introduction The refrigeration cycle is used in many devices that are very important in our day-to-daylives; some of the applications of this cycle include preservation of food, air conditioning in houses as well as in cars and other automobiles. The majority of people are quite familiar with refrigeration since they own refrigerators in their kitchens. However, they may not be in a position to realize that air conditioners are also refrigeration systems. In fact, the two refrigeration types are both vapor compression refrigeration. This paper delves the applications of the refrigeration cycle. Applications of the cycle The cycle is very important since it affects many areas of our lives. As said earlier, it is used...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Renewable Sources of Energy in the Green Computing

With most of the corporate these days giving due consideration to their energy bills, green computing has found its place in the priority list for most of the CEOs. Apart from this, another important reason for the application of green computing goes to the increased carbon emission that the world is facing due to a surge in the consumption of non-renewable sources of energy.

Green computing is the latest buzz in the world of computing in order to protect the globe from the lethal attack of global warming. We first have a look at the phenomenon of global warming. Global warming is a dramatic and unexpected surge in the temperature of the earth, which is a common abode for many different species and not just human beings...
7 Pages(1750 words)Report

Introduction to Change Management

Management often follows a “change management process” to change the existing process or activity.
Change management is a systematic approach for dealing with change that takes place in the organization as well as at the individual level. Such change management comprises of three aspects: adapting change, controlling it and finally affecting it. These three aspects of change management were well explained in three stages of change model given by Lewin (1952) and the three stages are “unfreezing”, “change” & “refreezing” (Orlikowski & Hofman, 1997). Another model for change was introduced by Prosci after conducting a research on more than 1000 companies from 59 countries....
7 Pages(1750 words)Case Study

Issues Connected to Human Resources Management

Notably, management professionals would agree, HRM system is an integration of various management practices with ‘people’ at its prime focus (Jackson, Schuler & Werner, 2008); and, the common factor between business organisations and educational institutions is ‘people,’ although their goals differ. This could be one main reason for attempting to implement HRM in educational institutions, although it is customized to organisational benefit.

Halachmi’s (2002a) extensive analysis on performance measurement clearly indicates the need for performance measurement in order to achieve the goals; and, it, in turn, establishes targets aligned to organisational goals and expectations; makes evalu...
8 Pages(2000 words)Assignment

Risk Management in the Airline Industry

With revenues in excess of ₤9 billion and a fleet of 245 aircraft as of March 2009, Heathrow-based BA’s risk management strategies provide an excellent example.
b) easyJet Plc, a Low-Cost Carrier, flying to more than 100 destinations in Europe, UK, and Northern Africa, and clocking over 50 million seats, with revenues of ₤2.4 billion in 2007-08 [2]. Covering over 380 routes with a fleet of 165 aircraft as of September 2008, Luton-based easyJet’s risk management strategies provide another excellent example with a different set of policies.

The airline industry, internationally, is characterized by its exposure to substantial operational and financial risks. Financial risks result in uncertainly in key pa...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

Economic Models: The Free Market and The State Owned System

The free market concept is mainly a theoretical concept as every country, even capitalist ones place some restrictions on the ownership and exchange of commodities (Free market economy). Therefore, the term free-market economy primarily means a system where the buyers and sellers are solely responsible for the choices they make. It gives the buyers and sellers the power to do business without being afraid of any regulations and intervention by the state. Hence, a free market gives the absolute power to prices to determine the allocation and distribution of goods and services (Free Market Economy). The pricing mechanism is in turn, driven by the forces of demand and supply of goods and services. Demand and supply of...
9 Pages(2250 words)Case Study

Comparing Management and Leadership

Once a manager decides on something, his subordinates are required to follow whatever he tells them or else he would have to use the power and authority vested in him to reprimand those who go against his directives. Managers are not their own bosses and as such, they are motivated by the salaries which they are paid for their services. This also makes them subordinates who follow orders from their bosses and who hold them accountable for the progress or failure of the business. Management is a process that focuses on ensuring that there is stability in the organization as well as proper utilization of resources in order to create a harmonious environment for maximizing profits while also minimizing risks, which is the overall sen...
6 Pages(1500 words)Literature review

Nutrition and Lifestyle Management

Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients that are only required in small quantities but are indispensable in maintaining a strong and healthy body. Most individuals should be capable of obtaining all the nutrients they require by consuming a healthy, diverse diet, even though there are a few exemptions. For instance, females thinking about getting pregnant are advised to consume a folic acid supplement to prevent the abnormalities within the child. (What are nutrients? n.d.).

In this study, my case history is presented. I am 41 years of age and trying very hard to lose weight. There are no known diseases in my family that I know of and the only thing that I suffer from is severe constipation. Constipation may be a conti...
11 Pages(2750 words)Case Study

Energy Expenditure During Walking and Jogging

Although walking is frequently dismissed as too easy or not difficult enough by fitness experts, the exercise itself bestows just as much benefit to the exerciser as jogging or running, with less of the jarring effects of more intense locomotion. This leads to a dramatically lower dropout rate of participants, meaning staying motivated is simpler on a walking regimen. Jogging, in contrast, requires additional effort without statistically significant improvements in time used in the workout, which leads to questions of whether walking or jogging is the more beneficial activity given the same resources. Based on the evidence that negates claims of an advantage for jogging, and evidence that jogging can lead to damage of body structu...
7 Pages(1750 words)Assignment

Logistics System Management

The logistics system is designed in such a manner as the combination of various facilities in the transportation at home, and the operations involved in the warehouse and the distribution channels for the manufacturing are the same. The supply chain is a collection of various complicated systems of logistics where they have a collection of raw materials and goods that are useful for the manufacturing of the final product and to the final distributors. “For example, in make-to-assembly (MTA) systems components and semi-finished products are manufactured in a push-based manner while the final assembly stage is pull-based. Hence, the work-in-process inventory at the end of the first stage is used to assemble the finished produc...
15 Pages(3750 words)Coursework

Project Management of Beijing Capital International Airport T3 Terminal

Some stakeholders can be both driving (positive) and restraining (negative) forces, it depends on how the project will meet their interests. These forces are marked by a dotted line. If changes happen, and the project won’t meet the interests of some of these stakeholders, a vector of the corresponding force will be changed onto the opposite and the force will move onto the opposite part of the diagram.

Each half of the diagram (left and right) is divided into three parts – Low, Medium and High. It defines the size of a force vector and indicates the importance (power) of a given force. Short forces have a low level of power.

Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) – undoubtedly advanc...
7 Pages(1750 words)Assignment

Banning Plastic Foam Containers

... of wastes to recycling costs. Given that New York City handles approximately 1.2 million tons of food waste annually, the amount that is incurred in handling plastic foam containers is extra expenses. This development takes place at the background of past events wherein the mayor implemented a ban on smoking in New York City’s parks, restaurants and bars and imposed limits on the selling of sugar sodas. Apart from ensuring environmental safety, promotion of public health and the abatement of costs that are incurred in managing plastic foam containers, the mayor made the move in the bid to restore the waterfront in the city. That the move cannot be adequately termed as draconian, is a matter that is underscored by cities such as Seattle...
11 Pages(2750 words)Term Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Energy Conversion and Management: Refrigeration System for inter modal containers for FREE!

Contact Us