StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...

First Crusade and the Gregorian Reforms - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Being remembered after the personality of Pope Gregory VII (1073-85), the First Crusade which took place on 15 July 1099, historiographically has been challenged by reform writers like Ryan, Gilchrist, Capitani, and Somerville for the reason they have supported that the reform movement was not a homogeneous unit…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.6% of users find it useful
First Crusade and the Gregorian Reforms
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "First Crusade and the Gregorian Reforms"

Download file to see previous pages Yet for those interested in the late eleventh century but with limited facility in Latin, access to Urban is difficult, for almost nothing from his councils and correspondence is translated. What have been available are recreations of the famous sermon from the Council of Clermont which sparked the First Crusade, none of which is likely to offer a reliable account of what the pope said (Somerville & Kuttner, 1996, p. 38). Under such vague descriptions, Gregorian Reforms cannot be predicted in the light of Pope Gregory alone.
Gregorian Revolution initiated in the eleventh century as 'peace movement' but these reforms had never been encouraged by Gregory VII and the Gregorian revolution. Today through various literatures analysis it has been discovered that Gregorian historiography never supported the first crusaders. It is also evident from the revolution that shows the clash of Gregory VII and Henry IV amalgamated the transformations of this period. It has long been held that the eleventh century was a pivotal era, on account of its social upheaval, its move from a gift to a profit economy, and, most especially perhaps, on account of the enormity of the urban advance. Historians write that it is due to the result of the first crusade that Gregory never favoured, European civilizations along with other small crusader states were created. It was a time which was characterized by a process of definition and distinction in all sectors and aspects of human existence. Kingdom of Jerusalem was created as an outcome to the first crusade which Gregory opposed.
Gregory VII being a close ally of Matilda of Tuscany while acknowledging a deeper deficiency in the reformers' attempted at defining a new constitution for the Church and Christian society, explicitly articulated an appropriate mechanism by which a new code of behaviour was established. Gregory served to demonstrate and concern the despicable status of Rome and its bishop before reform began in earnest. Rome was already considered blessed in that era where the ultimate source of spiritual power were the tombs of Peter and Paul, the relics of the blessed martyrs: figures who actively worked on behalf of petitioners.
Under the guidance of Gregory, the Amalfitan merchants in the eleventh century (1070) built hospitals or perhaps even further back to the establishment by Abbot Probus of a pilgrims' hospice for Latins in AD 603 which monks of St. Mary's ran. Just before the first Crusader rule the Armenian community in Jerusalem had earlier been located in different parts of the city. By the Crusader period it seems that the areas outside the city walls were no longer occupied by them, but they retained their quarter in the south-west of the city.
That was the epoch which was papacy dependant as adequate fighting men were supposed to take authorisation by the church. History tells us that Urban II was not the first pope to help the eastern Christians against the Turks (Boas, 2001, p. 39). When Pope Gregory in 1074 showed keen interest in leading the first crusade, he did this by communicating in person with the Michael of Rome and Constantinople. He wrote three letters which did not reveal any response to the Byzantine VII in ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“First Crusade and the Gregorian Reforms Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1529908-first-crusade-and-the-gregorian-reforms
(First Crusade and the Gregorian Reforms Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1529908-first-crusade-and-the-gregorian-reforms.
“First Crusade and the Gregorian Reforms Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1529908-first-crusade-and-the-gregorian-reforms.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF First Crusade and the Gregorian Reforms

The first crusade 1096-1109

...The First Crusade 1096-1109 Introduction Crusades were the religious wars that were undertaken by Western European Christians against Middle East Muslims (Akbar 68). They took place between 1095 and 1292. The crusades were nine in number and they mainly intended to rescue the Holy Land (Jerusalem) and other Christian territories that had been captured by the Muslims. The term crusade is also used in describing religious, economic and political wars of between 1000 and 1600 in territories that were not within the Levant (Eastern Mediterranean). In these regions, the crusader wars mainly targeted the heretics, pagans and the excommunicated people (Khalidi 35) 1. Who is a crusader? According to most English dictionaries, a crusader...
15 Pages(3750 words)Essay

The history of the first crusade

... submitted The history of the first crusade: Looking at different sources that discuss the crusade’s details Religion and conflict have gone hand in hand through out man’s history. People have been defending and fighting for what they believe for as long as records have been written, and these conflicts come in all sizes and forms, from the smallest and most peaceful arguments, to full-blown wars with fighting and bloodshed. Some have even speculated that most of the world’s major wars would not have happened if not for religion. This is very ironic since most, if not all religions teach their followers about peace and kindness towards their fellow man, but make no mistake about it, countless people have fought and died over...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

The First Crusade

...? Critical Analysis of the First Crusade as a Response to the 11th Century Reform Critical Analysis of the First Crusade as a Response to the 11th Century Reform Introduction Though the common view asserts that the first Crusade was primarily the response of thousands of common people to Pope Urban’s (II) preaching, modern sociological studies show that it was essentially the product of the early reformist zeal of the 11th century as well as a response to the contemporary historical phenomena. An in-depth analysis of the historical background of the First Crusade will reveal that it was connected to the socio-political and religious strata of the Reformation in a number of ways. Therefore it was more of a sociopolitical phenomenon than...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Reforms

The changes have bought positive impacts from the view point of parliamentary democracy, parliamentary sovereignty and the rule of law. Two such reforms, introduced under the Labour Party reform agenda, are the House of Lords act, 1999 and Freedom of Information, 2000. The former reform was introduced with the goal to make the House of Lord more representative as well as democratic whereas the later was created to make the government operations more open and increase the democracy and sovereignty of the nation1. UK is a nation that follows parliamentary democracy i.e. the members who form the government body are also members of either of the two Houses of the Parliament (though there are a very few exceptions to this) and, the go...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Healthcare Reforms

...? Healthcare Reforms Task Thesis: Health Care Reform would be beneficial by reducing the overall price per family requirement and medical treatment delivered. Having these basic necessities available would make living in this country easier on the mind as well as the wallet. Healthcare reforms are a broad term used to refer to major alterations/modifications to an already existing health policy or complete introduction of a new healthcare plan altogether (Kronenfeld & Kronenfeld, 2004). The reforms are usually a governmental policy and considerably rework the way health care services are delivered.Reforms endeavor to increase the number of citizens that getvarious health care services through insurance policies from both public and private...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Gorbachev's Reforms

Through these structural reforms which were meant to broaden the opportunities for the popular movements and the political parties so as to gain influence, Gorbachev made it easy for the orthodox communists, populist forces and nationalist to go against his wishes and oppose his efforts to revitalize and liberalize the soviet communist. This led to different opinions with some advocating for the liberalizing of the Soviet Union, others wanted the republics to be independent while the rest demanded for the restoration of old ways of the soviet union. These forces from below, top and sideways could not be compromised by Gorbachev leading to the consequent fall the Soviet Union.1
Between the year 1969 and 82 is when the reforms...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

The Fourth Crusade

... belief it would succeed. [Queller, Donald E. "The Fourth Crusade: The Neglected Majority." ] The concept of God testing the determination of the crusaders through temporary setbacks was a familiar means for the clergy to explain failure in the course of a campaign. The clergy's message was designed to reassure and encourage the crusaders. Their argument that the attack on Constantinople was spiritual just revolved around two themes. First, the Greeks were traitors and murderers since they had killed their rightful lord, Alexius IV. The churchmen used inflammatory language and claimed that "the Greeks were worse than the Jews", and they invoked the authority of God and the pope to take action. To introduce the Jews (supposedly the killers...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

First Crusade Military Perspectives

... to the sovereign (Irwin 1998, p. 72). At the beginning of 1113 A.C., Baldwin, the King of Jerusalem, raided into the seigniory of Damascus. Unable to oppose him single-handed, Toghtakin, the Lord of Damascus, invoked the assistance of Moudud of Mosul (Irwin 1998, p. 75). In July 1113 the combined forces of the Lords of Mosul, Damascus, Sinjar2, and Maridin marched into Palestine. In a battle near Tiberias, the Franks were routed with terrible loss, and a large number of them were drowned in the lake and in the Jordan. In June 11193 they were again defended at a place called al-Balat by Ilgazi, the Lord of Maridin. Even the Egyptians won some successes on the sea coast (p. 77). But the Crusaders had the whole of Europe at their back...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

The Abolitionist Crusade

Efforts to end slavery began earlier in the colonial era where Quakers who were members of Society of Friends, were the main torchbearers of the abolitionist movement. The main idea at that period was that blacks were inferior while the whites were superior. However, the Quakers held a different opinion and promoted the idea that all people regardless the skin colour where seen to be equal in God’s eyes and had a spark within. The Quakers abolitionists’ first goal was to end slave trade among its membership and believed that if the trade in slaves was abolished, slavery as a whole would seize to exist. Notably, John Woolman and Benezet Anthony urged the other Quakers to disconnect from the barbaric slave trade and all connections...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

England and the Crusade

...England and the Crusade Introduction The Crusades were the campaigns that were organized by the Roman Catholic Church so as to help the Christians gain more access to the Holy Land of Jerusalem. Such crusades began during the middle Ages and they consisted of military wars against the Jews and the whole Muslim community. The crusade wars did not just start with England and its kings. The very first crusade was organized by Pope Urban II in the year 1095. This pope had the very objective of enabling the Christians, especially the Catholics, to be able to visit and stay in Jerusalem. After this first crusade, many other crusades followed. The struggle was between the Muslims and Christians. Each one of them wanted to take full control...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

The First World War: Gallipoli Campaign

...What lessons can be learned by leadership displayed by both sides during the Gallipoli Campaign: The Gallipoli Campaign of the First World War is a valuable case study for learning about leadership qualities and styles. Although it is a sad fact that close to 500,000 lives were lost in the campaign, the decisions taken and tactics adopted during the course of these battles would serve present and future generations of military and political leaders. As some historians already point out, the Gallipoli campaign holds a special place in the annals of World War. Leading a Multicultural Army: The campaign was witness to some inspiring...
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study

Putins Foreign Policy Changes during His First Presidential Term

Our world, since its ‘origination’ has been a ‘hotbed’ of activity. Activity in the sense, we humans have been showing activeness both mentally and physically, which have transformed our globe from a primitive one to an advanced one. The activities are normally carried out by humans, organizing or segregating themselves into different countries or nations. It is common knowledge that for a country to reach the top echelons, its leader has to be very capable and strong. That is, a capable and strong leader will only be able to provide a better life and future for his/her country and its citizens. From time immemorial, the success or failure of a country depends on the role, the leader plays. The leader is th...
82 Pages(20500 words)Dissertation

Slaughterhouse Five or The Childrens Crusade - a Duty-Dance with the Devil

Although there are several major themes to be followed throughout the book, Vonnegut portrays his characters in such a way as to paint revenge as an integral part of the storyline. It is revenge that drives several of the characters to their actions in both war and peacetime and it is revenge that is presented as the motivation behind the Allied firestorm in Dresden. To fully understand the key roles revenge takes within the novel as it is shown through the actions of the characters and the various communities involved, it is also important to understand some basic ‘real-world’ understandings regarding the emotional act of revenge from a philosophical and psychological point of view. Vonnegut, a prolific and celebrated...
13 Pages(3250 words)Book Report/Review

The Swedish Model and the Bureaucratic Problem of Social Reforms

...The Social Democratic The Swedish Model and the Bureaucratic Problem of Social Reforms (Pitt Series in Policy and al Studies) By: Bo Rothstein About the Author Bo Rothstein is a well-known economic analyst who is fond of writing about the different communities and countries making up the world today. It could be observed that his understanding about the history and how the said situations of the past naturally affects the present situations of the said nations. In his book “The Social Democratic State”, he notes the developments that Sweden had been under during the past decades of worldwide economic revolution. It could be noted that what he wrote actually gives a better chance for readers of today to understand how situations...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Socio-Economic Reforms 1830-70

...The approximate order in which industrialization unfolded; the United Kingdom was first followed by United s and France. Steakel and Floud, 1997: 427). With the defeat of Napoleon’s regime in 1814, Louis XVII restored the Bourbon Dynasty, and France was once again a monarchy under the rule of a king. The newly restored monarchy promised to offer France a stable government that would not provoke another European war (Popkin 83). According to Popkin, “Hasty negotiations produced a constitutional documents, called the Charte, or “charter,” to avoid the use of the word constitution, with its revolutionary connections. […] The Charte made France a limited monarchy, with the king sharing power with a bicameral legislature consisting...
11 Pages(2750 words)Assignment

Dengs Political Reforms

Furthermore, the common people were allowed to scribble their thoughts about the incumbent government on the famous Beijing Wall. That is why when Deng came to power he was welcomed by most of the people especially the students, but this reaction of the people was short-lived.
Although Deng did believe that political reform was needed for the sustainable growth of the economy, he made it very clear that these reforms could not in any way bring the western-style democracy in. (Gittings, 2006). China’s conservatives even believe that he defined ‘political reform’ in a very narrow manner. For him, political reform meant something that could help the government in keeping the economy stable and hence motivating...
9 Pages(2250 words)Assignment

First Fifty Years of American Cinema

...Fifty Years of American Cinema Introduction Today contemporary filmmakers stand on the shoulders of over 100 years of insights and stylistic innovations made by directors throughout the 20th century. A considerable amount of this innovation occurred during the early years of the cinema and were implemented and articulated to perfection in the first fifty years. During this period one witnesses Edwin Porter’s development of the western genre, and Georges Melies’ fantastical science fiction creations. The first fifty years of cinema were truly a golden age of artistic revelation. This essay considers the progression of stylistic devices during this period, and considers their relevance and influence for later filmmakers. M Fritz Lang’s...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

How Former First Lady Claudia Johnson Contributed to Environmental Preservation

...FORMER FIRST LADY “LADY BIRD” JOHNSON’S CONTRIBUTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION INTRODUCTION Background Environmentalist, business woman, political activist and Former First Lady Claudia Alta Taylor Johnson, or “Lady Bird Johnson”, as she was known, was born on December 12, 1912, in Karnack, Texas, to Thomas Jefferson Taylor (1874-1960) and Minnie Patillo Taylor (1874-1918). She was the youngest of the Taylor family, following two brothers (Thomas Jr. and Antonio) . She earned the nickname “Lady Bird” when the family’s cook and nursemaid Alice Tittle , an African-American , commented that the little girl was as pretty as a lady bird. It is very unclear what kind of reference this may have been. However, as many would think...
16 Pages(4000 words)Assignment

Changing Course Selection System by Allowing Students in the Selected Majors to Access Major Course First Regardless of the Academic Credits of the Student

...Proposal for changing selection system by allowing in the selected majors to access major first regardless of the academic credits of the student Insert your name Insert course title Insert course code Insert supervisor name Insert date. Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 1.INTRODUCTION 4 1.1Statement of the problem 4 1.2Background of the project 4 2.PROJECT DESCRIPTION 6 2.1Objective 6 2.2Evaluation of team members 6 2.3Methodology 9 2.3.1Overview 9 2.3.2Scope and sampling 10 2.4Detailed timeline 10 3.BUDGET 13 4.EXPECTED RESULTS 14 5.CONCLUSION 15 5.1Summary of key points 15 5.2Request for action 16 6.WORK CITED 17 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In many universities and colleges, course selection is based on credit...
12 Pages(3000 words)Research Paper

First Man on the Moon

... Teacher First Man on the Moon Going to the moon has been mankind’s dream for a very long time. It is considered as the first major step in going the last frontier which is space. This dream was realized on July 20, 1969, eight years after President John F. Kennedy that United States is embarking on a space program no matter how difficult it is (Dicht 29). This dream materialized with Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing module landed on the surface of the moon carrying three astronauts in the persons of Neil A. Armstrong, the Commander, Michael Collins, the Commander Module Pilot and Edwin “Buzz” E. Aldrin Jr., the Lunar Module Pilot. It was however Neil A. Armstrong who first set foot on the moon making him the first man...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic First Crusade and the Gregorian Reforms for FREE!

Contact Us