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Trangenic Animals - Essay Example

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This report talks that many researchers have been studying the causes and cures of human cancer through the use of transgenic mice. Some of them will be included here to illustrate the use of transgenic mice in helping humans know cancer more deeply…
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Download file to see previous pages By transferring foreign DNA into animal cells, new genes can be inserted or functioning genes can be switched off. In some cases, new genes can be transmitted to the next generation. The precondition for the elimination or insertion of genes is that is possible to transfer into the cell recombinant DNA that integrates itself firmly into the DNA of the mammal. (EIBE, 1998)
2.2 Techniques for Transgenesis
The most direct way of integrating a new gene into a cell is to inject a piece of DNA into the nucleus in the hope that it will become integrated into the genome> This technique is called microinjection.
Microinjection is the most frequently used method of inserting a foreign gene into the genome of the mouse in order to develop a model for investigations into hereditary diseases. With each microinjection, 50-500 copies of the modified DNA fragments are inserted into the pre-nucleus.
Until recently, pronuclear microinjection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was the standard method for producing transgenic animals. This technique is now being replaced by more efficient protocols based on somatic nuclear transfer that also permit targeted genetic modifications. Lentiviral vectors and small interfering ribonucleic acid technology are also becoming important tools for transgenesis.(Prosperi, 2000)
3. Transgenic Mice and Cancer
3.1 Underlying Principle
What triggers cell to abandon their normal behavior and to divide out of control to produce a tumor Why do cancer cells move to other parts of the body to produce tumor there as well Is the change from a normal cell a consequence of genetic change, external factors, disturbance of the immune system or is cancer only a result of growing old

The following questions may be answered by testing known...
This report stresses that transgenesis is a radically new technology for altering the characteristics of the animals by directly changing the genetic material. Since DNA contains a universal genetic code for living organisms, it can in principle, be transferred between completely unrelated organisms to produce organisms with useful characteristics that would not be available.
Many different genes have now been characterized. This knowledge opens up the possibility of looking for methods of changing genes in ways that are useful. By transferring foreign DNA into animal cells, new genes can be inserted or functioning genes can be switched off. In some cases, new genes can be transmitted to the next generation. The precondition for the elimination or insertion of genes is that is possible to transfer into the cell recombinant DNA that integrates itself firmly into the DNA of the mammal.
This essay makes a conclusion that the use of transgenic mice in cancer research is very prevalent. Its use enables us humans to understand cancer better and come up with solutions. The problem, however, is that many scientists are contesting the appropriateness of relating results from transgenic mice to humans. Many animals are far more genotypically closer to humans.
There have been developments lately that humans can be used for clinical tests without wasting lives. Although this remains to be seen, the use of transgenic mouse model can serve as a good source of insights for us humans to understand the malignance that is happening to our body.
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