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Sports Nutrition - Essay Example

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Summary
Grace Lutheran College offers a variety of sports such as basketball, baseball, hockey, netball, tennis, water polo among many others. However, the paper will focus on the sport of water polo. In reference to the past performances in water polo, the results have not been up to standards…
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Sports Nutrition
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Sports Nutrition

Download file to see previous pages... It can best be described as a combination of swimming, soccer, rugby, wrestling and basketball. It is regarded as the oldest team sport in the world which is continuously contested at the Olympic Games. The game is normally played in seven- minute quarters; however, the regular fouls can extend the match time to approximately one hour of nearly non-stop action. In comparison to other team sports, water polo is a relatively shorter game. Upon the years, water polo has gradually been increasing in popularity especially among schools. Despite its popularity, the performance among Grace Lutheran water polo players has not been up to standards.
Energy requirements for any kind of physical performance are critical. The energy stores in the liver are the main fuel for energy in the body. When the stores are inadequate, sport performance, timing and focus begin to suffer. Water polo players require a daily high carbohydrate diet to boost stamina and refill lost muscle and liver glycogen stores mainly during competition and training (Phillips, 2004).
Allan (2004), states that the human body is normally designed to move by a sequence of coordinated muscle contractions. When the brain tells the body to move, the nerve signals trigger a massive release of muscular energy through a special molecule known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP). There are three systems in the body which create the ATP energy required for most of the physical activities, all the three systems are used for water polo in varying degrees (Cooper, 2003).
To start with, the ATP-CP system plays a major role in the provision of energy for a five to seven second swim sprint in water polo (Panel, 1999). This is facilitated by a high energy molecule (creatine phosphate) which quickly delivers energy to manufacture ATP. Creatine phosphate is largely stored and readily available in the muscle fibers. This makes it the main supplier of energy during the commencement of water polo game. However, other suppliers of energy come in after a short duration of time (30 seconds). Due to the fast depletion of CP, the short period of water polo should be followed by a rest period to ensure that the CP that was depleted in the muscles is restored. Usually, no oxygen is required hence referred to as anaerobic exercise.
Another energy producing system known as anaerobic glycolysis comes in after the depletion of energy using the ATP-CP system. It produces the ATP needed to continue the muscular contraction during execution of water polo skills. The break down of glycogen takes place with little requirement of oxygen. The glycogen utilized for this process is found in the liver and in the muscles (storage form of sugars in the diet). Normally, if a water polo player swims at a fast pace after the first 8-10 seconds, there is usually a delay in time when ATP formed from creatine phosphate runs out.
Brian (2003), states that anaerobic glycolysis manufactures adequate ATP for a prolonged period of time (40 seconds up to 2 minutes) unlike ATP-CP system and is usually dependent upon the training levels of the athlete. The process quickly delivers adequate ATP to allow the water polo player to keep up with the fast pace despite the low levels of CP. However, production of lactic acid ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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