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Space Shuttles Flight Path - Essay Example

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In the United States, NASA provides all oversight on the Space Transportation System (STS), encompassing 'intergovernmental agency requirements and international and joint projects, and the launch and space flight requirements for civilian and commercial use' (NASA)…
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Space Shuttles Flight Path
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Download file to see previous pages In an approximately a two minute time interval, the two boosters are spent and are separated from the external tank. Once spent, they fall into the ocean at predetermined points and are recovered for reuse.
After about eight minutes firing of the engines shuts down, and the craft is injected into orbit. At this time, the external tank is then separated from the orbiter, and is sent into a ballistic trajectory in a designated, yet remote area of the ocean, and is not intended for recuperation. The engine system is constituted of thirty eight primary Reaction Control System (RCS) engines and six vernier RCS engines. RCS are used for maneuvering leverage. Reaction control system release of the engines is done in sequential separation from the orbiter. Initiation of the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engines fires the orbiter into orbit. OMS are used to increase velocity on the orbiter's maneuvers. Two OMS execute the orbiter into orbit, while only one thrust sequence is utilized for deorbit. Velocity is attained at approximately 25, 405 feet per second (17,322 statute miles per hour). Deorbit requires a decrease of velocity at about 300 fps (205 mph) for reentry.
In the initial entry sequence, the RCS engines control the attitude (i.e. pitch, roll and yaw) of the orbiter, as aerodynamic pressure builds toward activation of the primary reaction control system engine inhibitors. High temperatures induced by entry, are mitigated by a reusable thermal protection system over the entire orbiter. Once unpowered, the orbiter glides to Earth and lands with aviation instrumentation with nominal touchdown at 186 to 196 knots of speed (i.e. 213 to 213 to 225 miles per hour.
Risk assessment and cost mitigation management planning in the space community is prefaced by the prediction that satellites have disasters of their own. On February 24, 2009, orbit of the OCO satellite failed as it was being carried into space when the Taurus rocket carrying the craft detached and crashed into the sea near Antarctica. Initial launch of the Observatory was followed by reschedule of the project. In terms of statistical significance probabilistic risk projections of satellite failure and especially satellite collisions are almost impossible to predict.
In consideration of the primary differences between accident risk and other types of risk such as public health mitigation of toxicological risk are located in: 1) the derivative of hazard utility to cost; 2) and longitudinal repercussions of consequences of risk. Accidents, while potentially easier to evaluate and hence, mitigate according to engineering systems analysis, may include environmental disasters unknown or statistically insignificant (i.e. outer space satellite collisions). Costs may be high due to level of technological process included in such systemic models of risk accountability, but potential for adherence to regulatory expectation is high in professional settings where scientific analysis and expert operation of technological endeavors eliminates random human errors by laypersons.
Here the garbage in and garbage out scenario works best, as garbage can be understood and controlled through incorporation of monitoring into mitigation strategies.
A schematic showing the arrangement of the valves in the main propulsion system of Mars Observer (Harland, 2005).
The development of universal Safety and Hazard Analysis sources by NASA and their impact on manufacturing ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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