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Infertility and Treatment - Essay Example

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Infertility is the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. In general, it is estimated that 10-15% of couples fails to conceive within 1-2 years of trying and is termed as clinical subfertility. There are many biological causes of infertility…
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Download file to see previous pages Further it is also estimated that about 40% of infertility cases are due to some disorder in male partner, 40% involve a female factor, and the remainder involves both sexes.
In women, problems can arise with either or both of gametogenesis and fertilization. As a result of these factors it can reduce or abolish the chances of pregnancy. Statistics suggest that ovulation failure either due to absent or infrequent menstrual cycles accounts for 20% of reported cases of difficulty in conception. Other problems that prevent conception in women include blockage of fallopian tubes, polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypothalamic dysfunction, luteal dysfunction, premature menopause, etc.
Blockage of fallopian tubes: Female infertility due to blocked fallopian tubes can be detected by a simple technique called the hysterosalpingography. In this process a radio-opaque dye (methylene blue) is infused into the uterus. If the leakage of dye into the abdominal cavity is noticed through the X-ray diagnosis, then it indicates open tubes, where as if the dye is remaining in the uterus and does not indicate any spillage into the abdominal cavity indicates blocked tubes. Blocked fallopian tubes can result from scarring and adhesions due to infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhea that cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). In general, simple surgery can clear blockages in the fallopian tube. However, if the procedure is not successful, then in vitro fertilization is recommended procedure. IVF is a procedure in which oocytes are harvested from the ovaries and fertilized by spermatozoa in a dish containing a sterile nutrient solution. It is also possible that tubes get damaged due to previous ectopic pregnancies. Even in such cases IVF is an option.
Disorders of ovulation: Ovulation disorders include amenorrhea, lack of menstrual cycles, and oligomenorrhea, infrequent cycles. Two types of medication are used in case of ovulation disorders. Clomiphene citrate which is an anti-oestrogenic drug that stimulates the anterior pituitary to release FSH is the first set of treatment. If clomiphene treatment does not work, injections of FSH are given. These drugs are administered to stimulate ovulation and help in achieving pregnancy.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): It is the most common cause of ovulation failure in women today. The ovaries typically contain numerous small immature follicles. PCOS can be easily detected through blood tests which measure hormone levels. It is more common in women under 30 years old and is due to an abnormal production of LH and FSH. The basic imbalance of these hormones in the women's body prevents the ovaries from releasing an egg each month. It also results in an abnormally high production of the male hormone testosterone by the ovaries. As a result of this there is increase of facial hairs. A combination of weight losing exercises and hormone treatments can help the patients with PCOS to conceive.
Premature menopause: Menopause is a natural phenomenon occurring in women after a certain age. Premature excessive loss of oocytes results in premature menopause in approximately 2% of teenagers and women in their early 20s. In such cases, infertility can be overcome by IVF using donated eggs. Additionally the infertile recipient of the embryos takes oestrogen and progesterone to prepare her uterus for implantation of the embryo. Medical sciences has ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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