Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

PEPFAR - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
The President's Emergency Plan for Aid Relief (PEPFAR) is a much needed response to the ever-escalating AID global epidemic rates. Conservative estimates suggest that 25 million people have died of AID since 1981. Figures for 2006 indicate that Africa has 12 million AID orphans and that almost 40 million people are currently living with the infection…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.5% of users find it useful
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "PEPFAR"

The President's Emergency Plan for Aid Relief (PEPFAR) is a much needed response to the ever-escalating AID global epidemic rates. Conservative estimates suggest that 25 million people have died of AID since 1981. Figures for 2006 indicate that Africa has 12 million AID orphans and that almost 40 million people are currently living with the infection. Death figures exceed the current Texan population and affliction figures equal the populations of both California and Oklahoma. PEPFAR must be understood and evaluated within this context; as a public policy whose intent is the treatment and control of the AID epidemic.
PEPFAR, the largest and most ambitions healthcare initiative in history came into being on January 1st, 2003. In response to ever-increasing concerns over the social, political and economic consequences of AID, the United States passed PEPFAR into public policy/legislature and declared a 15 billion dollar commitment to the policy.
While PEPFAR is dedicated to the fight against AID as a global epidemic, its primary focus is upon the 15 countries which have the highest incident rates, those being Botswana, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Vietnam, and Zambia.
Public bill 108-25 outlines PEPFAR's aims and objectives, further establishing its mechanisms and strategies for service delivery. As clearly outlined in PB 108-25, PEPFAR's AID-combat philosophy is governed by the ABC principle, or the "Abstain, Be faithful, use Condoms" model, whose effectiveness has, since 1986, been established upon implementation in all of Uganda, Jamaica, Ethiopia and Senegal.
PEPFAR's immediate objectives are the provision of Antiretroviral treatment to approximately 822,000 people living with HIV in the previously mentioned focus countries, expected to increase to 2 million, the extension of care to a total of 10 million and the prevention of approximately 7 million new infections. It is, in other words, an ambitious and much-needed program for the treatment and provision of care to over 12 million HIV cases and a strategy for the prevention of its continued spread.
While ambitious, Public bill 108-25 outlines prevention, care and treatment delivery mechanisms and strategies which ultimately render the program realistic. Within the context of the focus countries, PEPFAR is not presented as a foreign' initiative but as a local and communal one. The program, therefore, is intent upon the forging of partnerships in host countries through the training of community healthcare professionals and volunteers in the PEPFAR philosophy and prevention and treatment strategies. In so doing, PEPFAR works towards the building of local capacities for the management of the epidemic through the education of community members.
The education of community members on HIV is an integral componential element of PEPFAR's strategy to manage AID insofar as it both focuses on the infection's associate social stigma, thereby encouraging those with HIV to seek treatment and care and educates community members on prevention strategies. Local community education, therefore, is central to the program's success and local community partnerships are integral to its acceptance by host country populations.
At the request of the United States' Congress, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) is currently evaluating PEPFAR's performance to date. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“PEPFAR Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words”, n.d.)
PEPFAR Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words. Retrieved from
(PEPFAR Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words)
PEPFAR Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words.
“PEPFAR Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document


HIV/AIDS: Prevention and Treatment

... put in by the agency mostly revolve around the significance given to having only one partner or encourages sexual intercourse only with one’s spouse or regular partner. However, similar to the UN initiatives, it ignores the role played by concurrent partners in increasing the possibility of attracting the disease. The programs advocated by PEPFAR mostly advocate the cultural values, such as loyalty, fidelity, sex after marriage etc., as a tool to prevent the disease from spreading any further. It has further claimed that all the countries reeling under the pressure of this pandemic, and particularly those with a high prevalence rate, must adopt and practice abstinence from sexual activities, delay their sexual ventures, and / or practice...
15 Pages(3750 words)Research Paper

Public policy and management

... Subregional Workshop, viewed 01 May 2011 from United States President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, (2011), Fiscal Year 2010: PEPFAR Operational Plan, viewed 01 May 2011 from World Health Organization (2011), Global HIV and AIDS estimates, end of 2009,, viewed 01 May 2011 from ks to offer technical and organizational capacity in order to help ensure local partnerships. The third activity area being focused on by the HRSA is on enhancing data collection and evaluation (PEPFAR, 2011, p. 86). CAREWare is an electronic health information program designed by the HRSA in order to...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Aids/HIV epidemic in Swaiziland

... of such OVC but in many cases their own children have been the victims of HIV/AIDS. (Usaid Swaziland 2009) USAID Support In 2009, Swaziland received $13.6 million for essential HIV/AIDS programs. These programs are implemented by PEPFAR who has a back up of President's Global Health Initiative committing $63 billion to support partner countries in health services. In 2009, Swaziland Partnership Framework was signed between the USG and the Government of Swaziland on HIV and AIDS program. Under this framework, a more sustainable approach is being launched to combat HIV/AIDS. It is based on following pillars: 1. To develop a national HIV prevention program. 2. To improve the quality of HIV-related treatment and care 3. To mitigate the impacts...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper

Aids and hiv

... to have its own initiatives such as PEPFAR. The Global Fund further accuses US PEPFAR of taking healthcare distribution related decisions on political grounds, rather than health/need basis (AVERT, 2009). Another international HIV and AIDS charity, AVERT has argued that US based PEPFAR avoids supporting countries considered to be politically hostile. US PEPFAR was also accused by AVERT of discouraging the use of generic drugs which are cheaper than the ones from US based pharmaceutical companies. Thus US based pharmaceutical companies in a way are accused of criminally keeping the masses away from using the right drugs. Such revelations suggest a nexus between pharmaceutical companies and both local and foreign governments. Such a nexus...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Describe the U.S. Foreign Policy and how it affects the citizens

... of twenty-eight countries. Under the NATO policy, the U.S. is compelled to defend any NATO state that is attacked by a foreign power (Cox & Stokes, 2008). There are also foreign policies on different issues, such as terrorism, worldwide health and disease, immigration, foreign aid and others. The foreign policy of worldwide health and disease targets globalized diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB, etc. Different organizations have been formed to combat these diseases such as PEPFAR (President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief), where the U.S. government spends fifteen billion dollars over a span of five years to combat HIV/AIDS. Foreign aid is also another foreign policy. This policy compels the U.S. to spend about 0.18% of its Gross...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Aids: US Obligation to Third World Countries

... packages to the Third World. This shift is seen in the US pharmaceutical industry also. Many US pharmaceutical industries today offer drugs to third world countries at fairly low rates. Works Cited Avert. “PEPFAR and the global health initiative: The creation of PEPFAR.” President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS relief (PEPFAR). (n.d). Web. 14 May 2012. Bennett, Simeon & Randall, Tom. “AIDS drugs flow to the third world.” Bloomberg Businessweek. (2010). Web. 14 May 2012. Hales, Paul. “US dumps computer waste on third world.” The Inquirer. (26 February 2002). Web. 14 May 2012.
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay

Antiviral Drugs

... not be relevant within the cultural and societal environments of some of the PEPFAR target countries. As may be inferred from the IOM's report, PEPFAR ultimately conspires against its own ability to fulfill the promise and hope which is embodied within it, insofar as its budget allocation framework is, in essence, a mandate for the misallocation and wastage of scarce and precious resources - resources upon which the lives of the 8,000 people who die of AIDS every day are dependant upon. It is from within the parameters of the aforementioned concern that the IOM's recommends both the expansion of the budgetary resources allocated to prevention and the allowance for greater autonomy in the determination of the prevention strategies...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Project management---management of project organization

...; Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO); The World Bank Group; International Committee of the Red Cross; CARE; Mercy Corps; President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR); Oxfam; World Vision International; Plan International; ActionAid; Doctors Without Borders; Greenpeace; World Wide Fund for Nature; ADRA; CAFOD; Save the Children International; SOS Children’s Villages. 3. In project-oriented organizations personnel and departments are organized around individual projects. For instance, many project-oriented organizations have project managers that manage teams of personnel. These personnel are usually from different departments and have different responsibilities, but all are required to successfully implement the project...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay


...of cooperating parties, for efficiency only can be gained by the means of coordination. Example of ABC-program shows, that discordant actions can raise additional troubles. In addition, cooperation itself needs to be resolved for ideological differences. Because cooperating while one party only works under condition of abortion minimizing, and the other needs cooperation while supporting abortion - would be troublesome. It can be seen, that the project of PEPFAR itself is still developing: from one side there are new ways to search for funds and promote the idea of helping AIDS-positive people, new ways to support AIDS-positive people, to make treatment more available, new ways to avoid being infected. From the other side, new...
1 Pages(250 words)Book Report/Review

The Devastation Caused by Hurricane Katrina

... Hurricane Katrina Policy analysis on the legislative bill number H.R 4197 (Hurricane Katrina Recovery, Reclamation, Restoration, Reconstruction and Reunion act of 2005) Introduction The devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina is estimated at more than $75 billion. This does not include the additional damage done to the economy due to the sudden jump in oil prices before the hurricane struck the city. In terms of human lives it cost more than 1600 people, the bodies of which were still being recovered more than 3 months after the disaster. The scenes and events that took place during and after the hurricane show both the darkest and brightest side of the human nature. The recovery process itself was charged with political... Hurricane...
10 Pages(2500 words)Coursework

Statutory Interpretation

...Sta y Interpretation Introduction: Parliament is sovereign, as articulated by Oxford A.V. Dicey who d that “in theory, Parliament has total power, it is sovereign” thereby it is the source of all valid authority.1 Therefore, applying this criterion, the judicial function of interpretation of the law is also based upon the absolute and indivisible sovereignty of the British Parliament2. No one has the authority to set aside any law of Parliament except Parliament itself, hence Courts may only use their powers to constrain any abuse of powers by the other arms of Government, such as the legislative and executive branches.3 Statutory interpretation may be addressed both from the legal and non legal perspectives. While a legal... y Interpretation ...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

Doctrine of Sovereignty and Jackson

...Doctrine of Sovereignty and Jackson Introduction: The case of Jackson and Others1 is significant in that the traditional notion of Parliamentary Sovereignty is being challenged. The Court of Appeal had to determine the intent of Parliament and whether a statute had been created in the first place1a. The relevance of the doctrine of Parliamentary sovereignty is more so in the context of the European Convention of Human Rights2 into UK law through the Human Rights Act of 19983, which mandates a more active judicial role. The Doctrine of Parliamentary Sovereignty: The orthodox approach to judicial review of Parliamentary mandates is based upon the absolute and indivisible sovereignty of the British Parliament4. As stated by Dicey... of...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

The General Nature of Conflict and How It Arises

...home Conflict Management Contents ……………………………………………………. 3 Conflict Management, the problem definition…………………4 What this paper is about………………………………………..5 Nature of Conflict in groups……………………………………6 Why do conflicts occur in groups? .............................................9 Conflict management in groups and role of leadership……………..11 Appendix…………………………………………………………….13 This is a paper on conflict management in organisations. While it covers some general aspects of conflict and its management, it mainly focuses on issues of management of conflict in groups and leadership issues, as these are of primary importance in today’s emerging organisations. Conflict management, the problem definition... Conflict...
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper

E-Payment Systems

...Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 Emergence of technology 4 Few years ago, the Internet was almost not available to the majority people. Nowadays, the Internet is the main persuasive tool all over the world. The Internet is an assortment of a variety of resources and services. The Internet has the major components are the World Wide Web and E-mail. There are a large amount of the search engines, up-to-the-second sports scores, celerity web sites, and chat rooms plus E-mail full of negotiations. The Internet is as well positioned as one of the most excellent business tools nowadays. Approximately the entire households have the facility of the Internet; but previous to people attach to the net, they require being... of...
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper

AIDS/HIV Epidemic

... to meet the basic needs of OVC including a single meal per day. Mostly, elderly people have been found taking care of such OVC but in many cases their own children have been the victims of HIV/AIDS. (Usaid Swaziland 2009) USAID Support In 2009, Swaziland received $13.6 million for essential HIV/AIDS programs. These programs are implemented by PEPFAR who has a back up of President's Global Health Initiative committing $63 billion to support partner countries in health services. In 2009, Swaziland Partnership Framework was signed between the USG and the Government of Swaziland on HIV and AIDS program. Under this framework, a more sustainable approach is being launched to combat HIV/AIDS. It is based on following pillars: 1. To develop...
7 Pages(1750 words)Research Paper

My Nursing Experience

... 30 Apr. Reflection on my nursing experience: This paper presents my reflection on myclinical experiences of interactions with my patients which required me to make use of my interpersonal skills. I shall explain my experience with reference to the Gibbs Reflective Cycle. The six stages of the Gibbs Reflective Cycle are quite sufficient to help me learn from my clinical experiences and make a better nurse. In order to make the reflection schematic, it is customary to offer a brief explanation of the six stages of the Gibbs Reflective Cycle. The first stage of the Gibbs Reflective Cycle makes an individual describe the whole situation so that he/she may be able to analyze the consequential feelings in the second stage. In the third...
6 Pages(1500 words)Personal Statement

Coerced Plea Bargian

...Coerced Plea Bargain Thesis ment All people; even the guilty have rights and under no circumstance should their rights be taken away from in thename of coerced plea bargain. Introduction Perhaps one of the most useful components of the law is the protection of the fundamental human rights of all people. The protection of the fundamental human right is regarded very useful because it non-discriminatory and puts all people equal before the law. It is like saying that if the president of the nation deserves to live, the laborer at the presidential palace also deserves the same amount of right to live. Born out of the protection of the fundamental human rights of all people is the plea bargain that is basically concerned... Plea Bargain Thesis ...
6 Pages(1500 words)Coursework

The Wall Street Movement

...The Wall Street Movement Introduction The enduring confidence of the American people has been one of this country’s defining traits. This confidencehad been fueled by the American dream, a philosophy which suggested that everyone in this country was afforded an equal chance at attaining success; one need only to work hard and persevere to achieve their dreams. However, recent events have challenged this romantic perception of the country, and many Americans now find themselves frightened, frustrated, and at a loss about what to do with their lives. The root of this disenchantment comes from a pervasive sense of inequality and lack of social mobility. Americans always believed that the core promise of opportunity would allow... Wall Street...
7 Pages(1750 words)Term Paper

Short Stories: Fear of Biking, Swimming, and The Tale of Beauty and the Beast

...Fear of Biking It was my first time to ride a bike. I was six years old. Some kids had learned how to ride a bike earlier, but I was afraid. Perhaps,it was because I saw many children falling and bruising their knees. I was afraid of falling and never getting up again. Despite his busy schedule, my father made sure that he would be there to encourage me. I was more afraid than before, more afraid to disappoint him than falling. But he always said, “You can do it! Just try and try.” His smile was warm and assuring. My mother got me worried more sometimes actually. She did not want the slightest bruise or wound in any part of my body. Every time I practiced and almost fell, she would scream, and her scream surprised me... of Biking It was my...
20 Pages(5000 words)Essay

Police Brutality

...Police Brutality The cases of police brutality appear in the United s everywhere and pretty often, that evidently make the citizens ask themselves whether they are safe in their own country and can they trust their law enforcement system. Thus, it means that the state doesn’t carry out enough the responsibility for its citizens. For the avoidance of people’s doubts in their safety, police brutality should be precluded by attentive control of law enforcement officers by using of body cameras. First of all, it is important to define the cases that can be called police brutality, as any legal measures can be formed based only on a certain definition of violation of a law it is supposed to prevent. Thus, according to the Law... Brutality The...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic PEPFAR for FREE!

Contact Us