StudentShare
Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Search
Go to advanced search...

Oxygen Cascade - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Oxygen is central to all aerobic forms of life (Treacher, and Leach, 1998). Most diseases have inter-connections with the availability and use of oxygen. Conversely, normal functioning of a living cell is not possible without this substance. Normal health, disease, and oxygen are inevitably related…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER99% of users find it useful
Oxygen Cascade
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Oxygen Cascade"

Download file to see previous pages Any disease which affects oxygen supply and access at the cellular level therefore has potentially fatal consequences, even if the disorder is transient.
Oxygen does not normally exist in nature by itself, but rather in mixture with other gases (Townsend, and Webster, 2000). Dalton's Law therefore comes in to play at all times, with each gas in a mixture exerting an independent partial pressure (Hopley, and Schalkwyk, 2006). Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor are three common gases which generally accompany oxygen during crucial phases of respiration. Living cells may therefore be unable to access oxygen in a state of disease, even though the gas is available in the surroundings.
Oxygen availability and demand for this substance are not steady at all times. Physical activity and other physiological processes, including those affected by disease, may cause oxygen demand to peak well over the average level. The partial pressure of oxygen, on the other hand, may fall off steeply, as at high altitudes. Changes in oxygen availability and demand do not necessarily move in tandem. High altitude sickness is a common example of oxygen demand peaking even as its partial pressure falls steeply. Disease may also affect the supply/demand balance of oxygen at the tissue or cellular levels.
There is a complicated and inter-related delivery system for oxygen from the atmosphere external to a living being and the mitochondria in cells responsible for oxidative phosphorylation (Lewis, and Fitz-Henry, 2001). Any defect in a tissue, structure, or a system, involved in respiration, circulation, diffusion, or metabolism, can affect the ability to use oxygen for vital processes.
This paper defines the series of partial pressures at which oxygen is available at various levels of a living system, and relates the processes involved in the procurement, gaseous exchange, transport, and use of oxygen, to states of disease.
Steps in the Oxygen Cascade
Most people live at or around sea level. The atmospheric pressure at this level is 760 mmHg and 20.94% of air at this altitude is oxygen (Neligan, 2002). Therefore, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) at sea level is 159 mmHg. However, the PO2 at the level mitochondria in cells is as low as 3 mmHg (Neligan, 2002). Where have 156 mmHg gone The vast proportion of oxygen is either diluted or even lost altogether as it travels in to lungs and from the alveoli to blood in the circulatory system. The various stages by which the partial pressure of oxygen falls off are collectively known as the oxygen cascade. Life has evolved to deal with such colossal inefficiencies, and to maintain normal health at the same time. The transfer of oxygen from air to blood in the lungs, the transport of oxygen by blood to organs and to tissues, and the diffusion of oxygen from capillaries to individual cells and to the mitochondria inside them, all take place within specific ranges of partial pressures. However, the balances are delicate, and diseases and other may have serious effects on the oxygen cascade. All diseases which affect the structure and functioning of the lungs, or which affect the capacity of blood to transport oxygen, or which affect circulation of blood to the far reaches of the body, or which affect cellular organization, especially in terms of mitochondrial ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Oxygen Cascade Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words”, n.d.)
Oxygen Cascade Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1507351-oxygen-cascade
(Oxygen Cascade Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 Words)
Oxygen Cascade Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 Words. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1507351-oxygen-cascade.
“Oxygen Cascade Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1507351-oxygen-cascade.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Oxygen Cascade

Administration of Oxygen Therapy

...Administration of Oxygen Therapy As a research methodology, questions are used to critically analyze data concerning the prescription and administration of oxygen therapy. According to Nathaniel (2007), who has had a growing interest in complementary and natural therapies, embarkment on the healing latent of hydrogen peroxide, is what he did. First and foremost, the effectuality of staff with the mandate of prescribing and administering the therapy was questioned. Apparently, the said personnel have satisfied the required experience needed in the prescription and administration of oxygen therapy. The result of the administration has also been at the lime light. Nathaniel’s (2007) literature provides positive outcomes that come about...
13 Pages(3250 words)Research Paper

Molecular Cascade and Upstream / Downstream Processing

...? One of the amazing features of life is the way each organism’s anatomical and biochemical detail is en d by deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), which is a polymer of nucleotides. As organisms become more complex, the number of nucleotides that code for their characters becomes greater in number as well. Thus, for humans, there are 46 chromosomes that contain 3 billion nucleotide base pairs. In contrast, a much simpler Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode roundworm) has 6 chromosomes and 100 million nucleotide base pairs, which is completely sequenced in 2003 (Waksman Student Scholars). All of these details are efficiently packaged through a chemically stable double helix, which coil around themselves to this great number of molecules... One of the...
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper

Cascade Training as an Organisational Strategy

...? CASCADE TRAINING: AN ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY by Location Introduction Learning and development at the individual, departmental, and organisational levels should neither have a limit nor an end. Putting an end or limit to learning and development could mean the relapse of an organisation’s human resources, which in turn could lead to the failure of the company to maintain the competence of its employees and its overall competitiveness. To ensure continuous learning and development, organisations should promote training and education. Both managers and employees should do their best to upgrade their knowledge and skills through training. Therefore, access to training should be provided by the company. Training offers a lot of advantages...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Mice oxygen consumption rate

.... The metabolic rate remains closely related to the rate of ATP production measured by cellular respiration (oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide production. Metabolism represents the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations in the cells of living organisms. Metabolism also refers to all chemical reactions that manifest within living organisms including transport of substances (Cannon and Nedergaard 242). # 3 Factors that affect metabolic rate The metabolic rates can be essentially determined by relatively few factors, namely: temperature, phylogenetic affinities, and mass. The body temperature possesses pervasive impacts on biological processes via the influence of temperature on the activity of metabolically significant enzymes...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Oxygen Saturation

...To investigate the number of fresh water shrimps in relation to oxygen concentration in the river Riber Brook Planning: The aim ofthis study was to see the effect of oxygen saturation on the number of shrimps (gammarus pulex) present within a selected test area. My hypothesis concerns the habitations of aerobic fresh-water species. I believed that as the concentration of dissolved oxygen increases, the number of shrimps present will also increase. My hypothesis was proved by the experiment. Results indicate that a higher oxygen content attracted larger numbers of gammarus pulex. For this investigation my independent variable was the number of shrimps present and the dependent variable was the concentration of dissolved oxygen. My control...
20 Pages(5000 words)Lab Report

Biochemical Oxygen Demand Hypothesis Testing

...PROBLEM STATEMENT: An aquaculture farm takes water from a stream and returns it after it has circulated through the fish tanks. The owner thinks that, since the water circulates rather quickly through the tanks, there is little organic matter in the effluent. To find out if this is true, he takes some samples of the water at the intake and other samples downstream the outlet and tests for Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). If BOD increases, it can be said that the effluent contains more organic matter than the stream can handle. Test whether BOD downstream is higher than the BOD at the intake or at the upstream. Table below shows BOD in the stream Sample Upstream Downstream di 1 6.782 9.063 2.281 2 5.809 8.831 3.022 3 6.849 8.66 1.811 4...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Animal Oxygen Consumption

...Animal Oxygen Consumption Lab Report This laboratory activity is concerned about energy metabolism absorbed in the energy production among animals which were used as subjects of the study. Primarily, it demonstrated relationship of the subjects' body weight, oxygen consumption per body weight at certain incubation periods. It also provided opportunities for students to perform accurately the procedures in the use of LaMotte Dissolved Oxygen kit, titrations and balance and allowed them to compare the oxygen consumption among organisms. The laboratory activity is practically experimental, were experimental and control group designs have been applied. After series of tests and manipulation, the investigator found out that, oxygen...
8 Pages(2000 words)Lab Report

Long-term Oxygen Therapy Service and Prognosis

...Introduction Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is an established treatment for patients with chronic respiratory insufficiency and chronic, stable hypoxemia (Weitzenblum, E et al 1995). The main goal of oxygen therapy is to relieve tissue hypoxia thereby reducing the level of pulmonary vasoconstriction in cases of respiratory disorders (Missov ED, De Marco T 2000). The majority of studies done to determine the efficacy of LTOT have been carried out in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) (Weitzenblum, E et al 1995). As COPD progresses hypoxia may develop and LTOT is one of the ways by which oxygen therapy can be given to patients with stable hypoxia (Ruse, C 2008). Cor pulmonale, defined as hypertrophy, dilation...
5 Pages(1250 words)Literature review

Biological Oxygen Transport

...Biological Oxygen Transport Oxygen is one of the most important elements to sustain life on this planet. Almost every life form, be it plants, invertebrates and vertebrate animals, require oxygen to carry out essential biological processes. It is crucial for the generation of energy through the oxidation of carbohydrates and other fuel forms. The generated energy is used to carry out important functions including growth and movement in animals. Life of every structural and functional unit of any life form depends upon the availability and utilization of oxygen. Keeping in view the importance of oxygen for life, its transfer in animals and plants has become a wide area of research and study. The term biological oxygen transport refers...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Biological Oxygen Transport

... Bioinorganic Chemistry. The inorganic elements found in living organisms are basic building blocks made up of atoms and molecules. The most common elements found in the cells of living organism are Copper, Carbon, Chlorine, Calcium, Iodine, Iron, Hydrogen, Magnesium, Oxygen, Phosphorous, Potassium, Sulphur, Sodium, Zinc and Nitrogen. The major part of the solid substances of a living organism is made up of organic material. However, these organic compounds are not sufficient for the human body. In order to live, a living organism has to perform many chemical reactions. These chemical reactions cannot take place on their own or even if they can, they are slow to reach completion. The chemical reactions thus require enzymes to speed...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the management of foot ulceration and its efficacy within the lower limb

...Role of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the Treatment of Foot Ulcers Introduction Therapeutic application of oxygen under high pressure is known ashyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Exhaustive studies in both animals and human beings over the past 2 decades have found several applications of HBOT, some of which include burns, acute traumatic wounds, gas gangrene, crush injury, chronic non-healing wounds, late sequelae of radiation injury and compartment syndrome (Sahni, 2004). As far as non-healing ulcers in the foot are concerned, there is enormous evidence to suggest application of HBOT. In this research essay, the role of HBOT in the management of non-healing foot ulcers will be evaluated through review of literature and critical analysis...
10 Pages(2500 words)Literature review

Explain how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported by the blood

...Transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood The circulatory system and the respiratory system are some of the major characteristics of larger sized animals, whose mass to surface area ratios are small and therefore require specialized organs and systems to meet cellular needs. Oxygen is one of the fundamentals of cellular mechanisms and requires sufficient transportation to body cells while carbon dioxide, a metabolic waste product, needs elimination from cells’ environments. The two processes occur in the gaseous exchange process that I explain in this paper, the process by which transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide occur in the blood. The process of oxygen transportation by the blood involves transfer of oxygen...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

Microbial physiology and culture (Practical Oxygen Transfer in a Stirred Tank Reactor)

...Oxygen Transfer in a Stirred Tank Reactor By Presented to September 8, Oxygen Transfer in a Stirred Tank Reactor Summary This experiment is aimed at studying oxygen transfer from air into water in a stirred tank reactor and also to determine the mass transfer coefficient, KLa and the exponents x and y. This process is important since it is applied in many fermentation processes which undergo aerobic reactions. This allows meeting the necessary the metabolic demands of aerobic microorganisms. In this process, air is passes through a reactor at a constant flow rate at given speed in revolutions per minute. RPM = 200 From the graph, Thus M=0.0594 KLa=3.564 RPM at 400 From the graph, Thus Therefore the slope, m=0.0146 Thus, KLa = 0.0146*60...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Oxygen cycle

...Oxygen Cycle Oxygen Cycle Every living being on the planet is a common consumer of oxygen. Oxygen is consumed as the result of respiration process that enables a living being to produce energy by breaking the food for its energy content. This energy is further utilized to perform every day tasks. As, the number of living organism are increasing oxygen would have depleted if there is no constant supply of oxygen. It is constantly produced to provide the demand of oxygen. However, the percentage of oxygen within the atmosphere reduced in the past few decades due to its massive consumption and lacked production. Human processes like power generation, industrial processes and combustion engine all require heavy amount of oxygen. In fact...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay

Cascade Effect and Global Business Revolution

...Cascade Effect & Global Business Revolution Introduction The paper accounts a detailed description of cascade effect in global business revolution and its implications for firms to compete internationally. During the past few decades, the economic conditions and environment has greatly revolutionized across the globe. The policies related to relaxation of international trade and easy flow of capitals, the quick and astonishing advancements in technology, establishment and growth of capital markets and trade beyond the borders have ensued in an enormous burst of merger and acquisition (M&A) practices within the international firms in developed countries. In addition, it is an observation that the course of denationalization...
11 Pages(2750 words)Research Paper

The Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport

...The Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Transport The physiology of throughout the body is essentially different. The reason for this is that the former is carried inside while the latter must be flushed out of the system. However, they follow the same process which peruse of the blood. Specifically, this part is called the hemoglobin. It is important in order for the oxygen and carbon dioxide to travel to their respective destinations. Oxygen is not readily water soluble and that it can hold only a very small percentage percent of its own volume of the gas at body temperatures. This is where hemoglobin comes in. It combines with oxygen reversibly in instances wherein gas is abundant and releases it up in parts wherein oxygen is lacking. Oxygen’s...
6 Pages(1500 words)Assignment

A Meta-Analysis of Transcriptomic Footprints Disclose Specificity of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Arabidopsis Study

...Meta Analysis The major findings and conclusions from the meta analysis are presented below. Firstly, reactive oxygen species are constantly produced during most of the metabolic activities of the cell. When photosynthesis takes place in plants, one of the by products is molecular oxygen, and the concomitant companions of aerobic life are reactive oxygen species. The reactive oxygen species are generally partially reduced or activated derivatives of oxygen, such as singlet oxygen, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical, which are all reactive and toxic and thereby can lead to the destruction of cells. These species also have a signalling role and are very important in carrying out this signalling function...
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper

Dissolved Oxygen Content and Fish Populations in Water

...Dissolved Oxygen Content and Fish Populations in Water Lab 1 – Introduction to Science Exercise 1: The Scientific Method Dissolved oxygen is oxygen that is trapped in a fluid, such as water. Since many living organism requires oxygen to survive, it is a necessary component of water systems such as streams, lakes and rivers in order to support aquatic life. The dissolved oxygen is measured in units of parts per million (ppm). Examine the data in Table 4 showing the amount of dissolved oxygen present and the number of fish observed in the body of water the sample was taken from; finally, answer the questions below. QUESTIONS 1. Make an observation – Based on the data in Table 4, discuss what patterns you observe in regards to dissolved...
2 Pages(500 words)Coursework
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Oxygen Cascade for FREE!

Contact Us