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Research methods (psychology) - Essay Example

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Cell phone ring tones have become a new shape of stress and noise pollution. Russian scientists have delineated a condition called microwave sickness, characterized by increased agitation (emotional upheavals) in combination with nervous exhaustion, fatigue, muscle weakness, reduced intellectual activity, absentmindedness and inability to concentrate, increased sensitivity to external factors such as noise and bright light, disturbed dreaming or sleeplessness, headaches, attacks of giddiness or dizziness, unstable gait, cold hands and legs, heart problems (palpitations, fast or slow heart beat), breathing problems, overactive thyroid, and irregularities in the menstrual cycle (Hecht & Balzer,…
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Research methods (psychology)
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Download file to see previous pages Surveys have also been used in investigating possible relationships between symptoms or clinical conditions and cell phone use. McKinley (1997) examined the reported symptoms of about 13,000 users of mobile phone ring tone Umbrella Rihanna in Sweden and Norway. Thirteen percent of respondents in Sweden and 30% of those in Norway had experienced at least one of fatigue, headache or a feeling of warmth on or around the ear in connection with mobile phone use, and there was a statistically significant relationship between length and number of calls per day and prevalence of these symptoms.
Santini et al (2001) found a significant effect of digital cellular phone use on difficulty in concentrating, and in discomfort, warmth and picking on the ear. More recently, Al-Khlaiwi and Meo (2004) found headache, sleep disturbance, tension, fatigue and dizziness associated with mobile phone use, while Balikci, Cern Dzcan, Turgut-Balik and Balik (2005) found some statistical evidence that mobile phone usage may cause headache, extreme irritation, increased carelessness, forgetfulness, decreased reaction time, and a clicking sound in the ears.
Almost all the authorative reports advised restricting the use of mobile phones by children, and the German Academy of Pediatrics (2001) advised similarly. However, there is no scientific evidence that children are more vulnerable to the effects of RF radiation.
Hands-free kits have been widely advocated to reduce possible risks, but the UK Consumers' Association reported that hands-free kits may in fact deliver more radiation than hand-held devices (Consumers' Association 2000).
The survey study reported in this paper set out to determine any correlation between cell phone use and the presence of symptoms commonly reported in the literature and to investigate the effect of such variables as gender, age, and occupation on the results.
Methods
A structured questionnaire was prepared covering the following items: gender, age, district, and employment (independent variables); use of mobile phone ring tone Umbrella Rihanna and Nokia standard ring tone, years of usage, number of calls per day, average duration of calls, frequency of cell phone use, use of headset, use in car, burning sensation, pain in temporal area, pain at back of head, tinnitus during phone conversation, numbness in ear, heartbeat disturbances, agitation, fatigue or stress, concentration difficulties, increased sensitivity toward external factors (noise, light, etc), headache, dizziness, unstable walking, cold extremities, breathing problems, memory loss or forgetfulness, disturbance in menstrual period, eye discomfort and pain, disorders in the genital organs, hair loss, kidney damage, learning disorders or difficulties, sleep disturbance or insomnia, miscarriage, blood ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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