Nobody downloaded yet

Phylogenic Evidence of Tarsiers as Anthropoids - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Tarsiers have been considered a taxonomic enigma due to the lack of consensus among primatologists and physical anthropologists towards its phylogeny over the past century. The oldest fossil representative believed to be of tarsiers Xanthorhysis tabrumi was unearthed by Beard and colleagues in China and is not considered less than 50 million years old…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91% of users find it useful
Phylogenic Evidence of Tarsiers as Anthropoids
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Phylogenic Evidence of Tarsiers as Anthropoids"

Download file to see previous pages However a number of shared and less similar characters make definitive decision about direct ancestors of present day tarsiers almost impossible.
There have been considerable debate and research over the tarsiers' relation to prosimians and anthropoids. A number of anatomic and molecular biological studies in recent times have shown a number of derived traits in tarsiers similar to anthropoids.
Pocock in 1918 was the first to suggest an anthropoid connection to tarsiers based on its numerous shared derived traits or morphological synapomorphies and allocating it to the sub-order Haplorhini. Based on the data from Gursky (1999) tarsiers share conspicuous haplorhine traits such as a dry rhinarium, haemochorial placentation, reduced olfactory bulbs, promontory artery, fovea centralis and a flexible upper lip. However there are inconsistent views on these traits being purely anthropoidean as it is also argued that the traits have been attained due to homoplasy because of its nocturnal tropical niche over long time periods (Barrett and Dunbar, 2000).
The visual system of tarsiers show high ganglion cell densities, high orbital convergence, retinal fovea, postorbital septum and lack tapetum lucedum which shows a stem lineage leading to a tarsier-anthropoid clade (Ross, 2000). Studies have implicated tarsiers to be derived from diurnal ancestors as in haplorhine primates, primarily due to the fact that they have lost the reflecting layer in the eye tapetum lucidum that maximizes its light gathering capacity.
Comparison of the average measurement of eye and cornea diameter and ratio of these measurements in relation to the average body weight among primate specimens were considered by Jason Cowan in his attempt to solve the phylogenetic enigma. The eye and cornea diameter averages were closest to the anthropoidean relative Aotus. However the average eye diameter with respect to the average body length showed a prosimian connection. However it could be adaptations for nocturnal habitation and specific dietary reliance that require high visual acuity (Cowan, 2006).
A diet reconstruction through character optimization shows a fruit and insect diet for the haplorhine stem lineage and visual predation on insects an adaptation of this (Ross, 1996). Another plausible scenario is that of a nocturnal tarsier like ancestry to anthropoids which occurred when a lineage diverged to adopt diurnality (Cartmill, 1980).
Auditory System
Tarsiers and anthropoids share an unusual feature in the petrous temporal bone which is the anterior accessory cavity. The cavity arises from the bony auditory tube as a pneumatic diverticulum ontogenetically and invades the developing petrosal plate it into a medial and lateral lamella that forms wall of the auditory bulla and tympanic cavity respectively (Cartmill&Kay, 1978, MacPhee & Cartmill 1986). The two chambers in the middle ear augment sensitivity to low and high frequency sound (Lomabard and Hetherington, 1993) that aid small nocturnal primates in visual predation.
Brain components
Analysis of brain components of tarsiers by comparing it with both anthropoid primates and prosimians showed a clear anthropoid connection in the work done by Joffe and Dunbar (1998).
An increase in size of the visual brain components as a result of encephelization ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Phylogenic Evidence of Tarsiers as Anthropoids Essay”, n.d.)
Phylogenic Evidence of Tarsiers as Anthropoids Essay. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1505103-phylogenic-evidence-of-tarsiers-as-anthropoids
(Phylogenic Evidence of Tarsiers As Anthropoids Essay)
Phylogenic Evidence of Tarsiers As Anthropoids Essay. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1505103-phylogenic-evidence-of-tarsiers-as-anthropoids.
“Phylogenic Evidence of Tarsiers As Anthropoids Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1505103-phylogenic-evidence-of-tarsiers-as-anthropoids.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Criminal Evidence
...?To what extent is a characteristic of a witness taken into account in criminal proceedings? To establish accurately the character integrity of a witness, and the trustworthiness of evidence, is an essential aspect in all successful rulings. Every rational individual could be a witness; however, the trustworthiness of his/her testimony will depend on his/her interest in proclaiming or covering the truth. The integrity of a witness, therefore, should only be questioned when there are connections, familiarity, or resentment, existing between him/her and the accused.1 Evidence from only one witness is not adequate because while the defendant refutes what the witness corroborates, truth stays undecided. The...
18 Pages(4500 words)Dissertation
Evidence
...?My is Meheret Hadelo Halabo and I met my husband, Greg Brown, on an internet-dating site on July 7, 2007. After a short acquaintance we got attracted to each other and he indicated that he wanted to marry me and told me that he would come over on my birthday. He came to Ethiopia in May 2008 and after seeing each other we celebrated my birthday. He was introduced to my parents and immediate friends. Together we visited historical places. Three weeks later he returned and started the process to bring me over. And we decided to get married on June1, 2009, a week after my arrival, as this was the second anniversary of our knowing each other. However, we had a minor misunderstanding on the day of the marriage and I refused to eat... is Meheret...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Forensic Evidence
...? Full Paper Introduction Discussing computer forensics in the context of law enforcement agencies or in corporate security, itwill lead to a conclusion of a subject that covers the utilization of computers to catalog physical evidence that is analyzed in other forensics techniques including biometric identification, analyzing DNA and dental evidence. Current technological trends have revolutionized the methods of storing data along with different advanced access mechanisms. These systems facilitate law enforcement agencies by providing instant access to these characteristics. Although, computer forensics also facilitates in investigation of crimes within themselves in order to gather evidence associated with criminal activities... that...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Evidence
... 23 March Evidence To what extent must the parties in civil and criminal cases disclose their evidence to the other side? A main issue in the civil and procedural law in criminal cases is the extent to which either side has to create revelation for the other. This has guided to the growth of an imposing body of jurisprudence which is both in the Strasbourg and in the United Kingdom. In any criminal actions there can be opposing interests, for instance national security or they require to defend the observers who are at risk of reprisals or to maintain the secret police techniques for examining crimes, which have to be weighed against the liberties of the accused. In certain cases it can be essential to withhold convinced evidence... and they...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Evidence
...Evidence The parties in either civil or criminal case must disclose their evidence as broadly as possible, to the other side of the case, and especially the disclosure of any exculpatory evidence (Federal Judicial Center, 27).The broad disclosure covers even the disclosure of confidential informants, like in this case, the “Eye” officer. According to Weingarten, Gene’s: "The Police Couldn't Hide Their Lying Eyes” case, it would have certainly not be possible to understand that the “Eye” police officer was lying in his testimony, until the fine details were given regarding the clothing and the item that the defendant was described to have been possessing (Weingarten, n.d.). While the $10...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Eyewitness Evidence
...'Eyewitness evidence, which can be quite fragile, can be greatly aided by the procedures used by the police'. Evaluate the ment with regard to either adult or child. Parameters and procedures considered within and concerning the interrogation of eye witnesses would require an understanding of specific elements. There are several elements including the psychology behind eye witnessing, estimator and system variables, experimental evidence which guides police procedures, line up procedural developments. Other influences include the court's prior and present view of children as witness in comparison to adults in reference to competence, credibility and trustworthiness. Proper procedures in the pursuit of...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Evidence Base
...Nurse’s attitudes towards Evidence Based Practice” Where have we been? How far we have come? What are the current issues, and where are we going in terms of incorporating high quality evidence into clinical, education, management, and policy decisions? Is evidence-based nursing a passing fad, or does it contributes to quality, efficient health care? What are your responses to these questions-give examples? An evidence based practice encompasses an amalgamation of clinical expertise and systematic research acquired over the years through experience. It is observed that the utilization of evidence is frequently suggested in context to healthcare...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
Evidence review
...BOWEL DYSFUNCTION INSTITUTE BOWEL DYSFUNCTION The proper and normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is central to the normal functioning of the human body. The gastrointestinal tract serves to provide as means of providing nutrients to the cells of the body. The unprocessed and unutilized part of the food is evacuated from the body by the lower portion of this tract. The small and large intestines are referred to as bowels and their normal motility and performance is essential to maintain the integrity of the digestive system. The dysfunction of the bowels can result in constipation, diarrhoea and faecal incontinence. The underlying causes of bowel dysfunction maybe primarily associated with the bowel inflammatory... DYSFUNCTION...
7 Pages(1750 words)Essay
Evidence
...Evidence al affiliation Law and legal process According to the civil of Procedure in California, the supreme courts shares similar dealings with the courts of appeal concerning reversing, verifying or modifying any orders appealed. Passing a direct and proper judgment by the jury or judge should involve new trials or further records. While in the process of making their decisions, the jury should be able to issue the possibility of a fresh trial being issued. The mother falls in the civil case category since it is being handled by the Supreme Court. Therefore, his trial is supposed to be placed in the calendar of the judiciary in the arrangement of the appointment of subject, in line with the proceedings concerning state...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Evidence base
...Evidence Base Evidence Base The policy that the surgical patient is the focus of perioperative nurses is one of the principles that guide nurses who take part in operating procedures. This explains why it is common practice for nurses who work within theatres to guarantee optimum and proficient care of the surgical patient by handling the overall nursing care in the operating room and facilitating the maintenance of a safe and comfortable environment. The above-mentioned policy is in line with the Association of perioperative Registered Nurses journal publication, which also suggests that operating room nurses should exhibit strong professional judgment, effective communication and critical thinking...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Phylogenic Evidence of Tarsiers as Anthropoids for FREE!
Contact Us