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Sports Medicine - Essay Example

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A. SMA is a modification of American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for pre-exercise screening and testing. The purpose of the questionnaire is to assess the level of his fitness before he embarks on any physical activity program. It is designed to provide a level of guidance so that those who are beginning regular physical activity are directed in an appropriate way to increase their safety and help them enjoy the experience (SMA,2005)…
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Download file "Sports Medicine" to see previous pages... If any question is answered in the affirmative in the first stage questionnaire then the person can start the exercise program or aerobic testing only after getting medical clearance. Though, in some cases the experienced exercise specialist may use his judgment to allow the person affecting certain problems to start an exercise program.
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People who are not at high risk can begin low or moderate level physical activity without the need for medical clearance. These people are also eligible for the stage 2 of the screening program if they wish to increase the intensity levels of their exercise or exercise testing.
Stage 2 identifies people with moderate risk as those with age more than 45 in case of males and more than 55 in case of females or those with 2 or more than 2 risk factors for heart diseases (SMA,2005). People at moderate risk can do only moderate exercise without medical clearance. Those who are young and have less than 2 risk factors are at low risk and can undergo high intensity of physical exertion without a need for medical clearance.
2. ...
This is unadvisable as it puts undue strain on the heart and lungs and poses risks of complications in the individual; also if the level of exertion is increased it is likely to deter people from taking the test, especially those leading sedentary lifestyles.

3. Which if any, of the energy pathways is fully utilized during the Wingate test If not, why not
A. Adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine energy pathways are fully utilized during the Wingate Test. The ATP stored in muscle cells are broken down into ADP and phosphate. ATP molecules are quickly exhausted in the muscle cells. More ATP are produced by combination of ADP and Phosphate molecules but it takes a long time. Finally glucose is broken down in the absence of oxygen to produce pyruvic acid.

4. What factors contribute to fatigue during the last 10 seconds of the Wingate test
A When pyruvic acid is formed from glucose by process of glycolysis, the absence of oxygen leads to the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid which has a corrosive action on muscles causing fatigue hence bringing down the performance. Also the energy produced by this anaerobic process is much lesser (2 ATP) than that by aerobic respiration in which complete breakdown of glucose molecule takes place leading to fatigue.

5. Explain in your own words what the fatigue index is and why it is relevant to performance
A. Fatigue index is decrease is power divided by time interval between the peak power and minimum power. In athletes it's of utmost importance as it determines the nature of their performance. Many factors contribute to fatigue index like functioning of heart and lungs, muscle ...Download file "Sports Medicine" to see next pagesRead More
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