Research has evidently documented the prevalence and severity of PTSD among military population. PTSD symptomatology has been recognized in literature as the most significant predictors of depression severity. As the veterans return home from battlefields of Iraq or Afghanistan, many bore both the physical and psychological wounds…
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Practically, from 10-18% of veterans upon their return home are diagnosed with PTSD. Studies found that Iraq/Afghanistan veterans are more likely to be incarcerated, being diagnosed with substance abuse disorders, and more likely to be married. In Afghanistan/Iraq veteran population PTSD can develop due to sustained injuries, wounds, traumas, and traumatic brain injury. There are several effective treatment approaches available for military patients diagnosed with PTSD, which include cognitive behavioral therapies, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocess, imagery rescripting, imagery rehearsal therapy, and virtual reality. According to CBT approach, interpretation of the traumatic events causes the symptoms, thus the treatment concentrates on elimination of irrational thoughts occurring in patients. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocess demonstrated an impressive empirical support for their effectiveness as treatment approaches for PTSD among military population groups. Virtual Reality based therapy incorporates modern technology such as computer graphic surroundings and visual displays to create a feeling of immersion in reality-like environments, such as battlefields.
The prevalence and severity of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among military population is well documented. ...
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), the diagnosis of PTSD requires exposure to a traumatic event and three resulting symptom clusters: reexperiencing the event, avoidance of traumatic reminders and numbing of responsiveness, and hyperarousal. In their study of Vietnam veterans, Schlenger et al. (1992) found 27.9% of Hispanics, 20.6% of Blacks, and 13.7% of White/other male veterans suffered current PTSD symptoms 15 years after military service. Similar results of PTSD prevalence were found among veterans of other recent military missions. Kang et al (2003) surveyed 30,000 veterans and found approximately 12% of veterans from the first Gulf War developed PTSD. The research performed by Hoge et al. (2004) noted 15.6 to 17.1% of returned Iraq War veterans in their study (n = 1709) developed PTSD. Additionally, Hoge et al. (2004) observed a PTSD baseline rate of 5% in the soldier sample prior to deployment. This baseline rate closely mirrored the 3 to 4% rates of PTSD in the United States general adult population (Narrow et al, 2002). In addition, many veterans suffer symptoms of trauma such as flashbacks or hyper-arousal without meeting the full diagnostic criteria of PTSD according to the DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
B. PTSD, COMORBIDITY AND SYMPTOMATOLOGY
Past studies reported high rates of comorbidity between PTSD and other adjustment difficulties and mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety and/or phobias, violence, unemployment, substance dependence and abuse, marital, and family discord (Jakupcak et al., 2008). Kulka et al. (1990) reported male Vietnam veterans with PTSD had an 80% lifetime prevalence of alcohol abuse and 30% suffered depression. PTSD symptomatology was
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