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The Nature of Crime - Essay Example

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Summary
Gottfredson and Hirsch wrote the general theory of crime in 1990; they argued that social control is the central concept in determining the individual's possibility of committing a crime. They defined crime as an act of force or fraud undertaken in pursuit of self interest, low self control explains an individuals likelihood of committing a crime, on the other hand high self control will explain the likelihood of an individual conforming to set norms and values in the society.
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Download file to see previous pages Therefore according to this theory low self control will increase the possibility of a person committing a crime, self control is achieved during early age when a child is socializing, poor parenting will lead to low self control to a child in future while strict and proper parenting will lead to high self control to a child.
This theory applies to age, race and gender, a research done to determine the age crime relationship showed that the age variable for certain crimes supported the theory in that the age was a direct result of low self control depending on level of socialization.
There also exist differences among races and ethnic groups because of the difference in supervision among this groups, but the races and ethnic groups do not directly determine crime instead it is the amount of socialization by parents that determine the occurrence of crime.
According to the two classical scholars low self control is as a result of poor parenting which determines the quality of socialization, parents therefore should undertake the responsibility of punishing their children incase of any misconduct in order to avoid the development of low self control which intern will lead to a h...
s low self control is as a result of poor parenting which determines the quality of socialization, parents therefore should undertake the responsibility of punishing their children incase of any misconduct in order to avoid the development of low self control which intern will lead to a high possibility of the occurrence of crime.
Various scholars have tested this theory and there exist various criticisms, some scholars argue that the theory relates behaviors such as drinking and smoking as criminals behaviors but to be realistic smoking and drinking individuals do not necessarily mean that they are criminals.
Another critic is that the theory assumes that crime is committed for the purpose of pursuing self interest, but this may not be true for all types of crimes because some other crimes such as murder may be committed for other reasons other than self interest.
The theory is also criticized for favoring traditional roles of the family, the two classical theorists favor the traditional society and argue that a child should have both parents, this is unrealistic.
Other studies have opposed the theory and suggested that adult social bonds such a person who has a stable job and a happy marriage may not involve himself in crime despite a poor socializing and parenting.
However the theory is a clear breakthrough in criminology and has helped understand the causes of crime, although the theory faces some critics it is the only theory that well explains he concept of crime and also possible ways of minimizing crime through proper parenting.
Question 2
Discuss the role of formal "sanction threats" in offender decision making. In doing so, your essay should address:
Formal social controls play a major role in the prevention of crime; control is expressed ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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