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Critical Thinking Discussion Question - Essay Example

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What do we mean when we refer to "framing" a Problem Why is it important to frame a problem before attempting to solve it What is an example of a situation in your workplace in which "forces of influences" affected problem recognition
Framing is problem solving that creates meaning by using other factors besides the wording of an argument…
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Critical Thinking Discussion Question
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Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Discussion Questions Goes Here al Affiliation Goes Here What do we mean when we referto "framing" a Problem Why is it important to frame a problem before attempting to solve it What is an example of a situation in your workplace in which "forces of influences" affected problem recognition
Framing is problem solving that creates meaning by using other factors besides the wording of an argument. If we change the factors surrounding an argument we can change the outcome of the argument. The core of the argument may be influenced by the physical setting. According to Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman a decision frame "is the decision makers conception of the acts, outcomes, and contingencies associated with a particular choice." (1981, p453). Framing a problem before offering up solutions can influence the outcome.
Prior to an early morning board meeting a look out the window shows heavy snow falling. A check online at The Weather Channel shows a forecast of heavy snow for the next forty-eight hours. With this information you head down the hall to the boardroom where others are gathering. There is murmuring about the weather and the desire of many to go home. The chairman of the board enters and begins to discuss the need to draft a coordinated plan to hire contractors to build a bridge that the team designed. It is Wednesday and he wants the finished product on his desk by Friday. The others in the room are periodically glancing toward the window where they can see the snow falling. The room is quiet. The Chairman looks out the window and then back at the room full of employees. He chuckles and says: Oh yeah, grab your laptops and go home. Set up a conference call to compile your work and have it in my email box by Friday. A sigh of relief fills the room. The Chairman leaves the room followed by the team heading towards the doors with coats and laptops in hand. Problem solved!
Forces of influence can change how one frames an argument and that influences the outcome. In the above example the employees were sure that the chairman had not recognized an obvious problem. The employees also did not offer a solution but grumbled instead. All were surprised when the chairman recognized the problem, solved it, and ended the meeting. Had a look out the window shown a sunny day with green grass etc the outcome of the meeting would have been different (different frame, different outcome).
1. Select one logical fallacy from your readings. Define the fallacy, explain its significance to Critical Thinking, and discuss its general application to decision making. Using various sources (internet, magazines, trade journals, etc.). Find organizational examples that illustrate your chosen fallacy. Be sure to use and cite at least one reference.
The Fallacy of Composition:
"For when you assemble a number of men to have the advantage of their joint wisdom, you inevitably assemble with those men all their prejudices, their passions, their errors of opinion, their local interests, and their selfish viewsit therefore astonishes me, sir, to find this system approaching so near to perfection as it does". Ben Franklin, Autobiographical Writings (last speech).
Similar to hasty generalization, the composition fallacy assumes that what is true of the whole's parts is true of the whole. Although it may often be true that characteristics of the parts are also characteristics of the whole, it does not logically follow that this is the case. For example, if we know that Allison is pleasant to be around and her husband is pleasant to be around, we cannot conclude that they are a nice couple to be around, for when they are together they might engage in competition with one another and become argumentative. As we can see from this example, the parts of a whole do not exist in isolation from each other; instead, they interact with one another. This interaction can create synergistic effects in the whole that are not shared by the individual parts. Twenty outstanding musicians may or may not create an outstanding orchestra, nor do a hundred great individuals necessarily make a great U.S. Senate. If you doubt this fallacy, add two soft ingredients, water and plaster of Paris, and see if you get a soft product.
Fallacy of composition happens very often. For example, a basketball player from a local team shoots hoops in his neighborhood after school. This guy is really good and makes just about every shot. The onlookers muse that he is so good and that their team doesn't have a chance against his team.
Another example is of a visitor who while walking thru the hospital sees several staff outside of the Psych ward trying to calm down a guy who appears disoriented and violent. This person may walk away believing that anyone who is in a Psyche ward must be disoriented and violent.
American Psychological Association (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Pope, Kenneth. PHD. Fallacies and Pitfalls in Psychology. Retrieved 02/18/07 Tversky, A. and D. Kahneman. (1981) The Framing of Decisions and the Psychology of Choice. Science
Bazerman, Max H. (2006) Judgment in Managerial Decision Making. 6th Edition. Wiley. Read More
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