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Vagina - vaginal canal
Cervix - exterior surface
[2] where is the columnar epithelium located in the cervix [1 MARK]
Endocervical canal
[3] list some cell types found in a normal cervical smear [6 MARKS]
Squamous cells - basal, parabasal, intermediate and superficial cells, columnar cells, blood cells
[4] what colours do these cell types stain with the papanicolaou stain [6 MARKS]
Parabasal - stain green [denser]
Intermediate - stain green [ pale]
Superficial - stain pink
Basal cells - dense green
Blood cells- orange
[5] name some contaminants found in cervical smears [5 MARKS]
Inflammatory cells
Powder from gloves
Dust from slides
Contamination from the body
Fibers from tampons
Fibers from clothes
[6] which cell type normally has the smallest nucleus [2 MARKS]
Superficial cells
[7]which cell type normally has the greatest amount of cytoplasm [2 MARKS]
Superficial cells
[8] name four early indicators of cellular change in a cervical smear [4 MARKS]
Inflammatory cells
Cervical mucin
Abnormal cytoplasmic staining
Abnormal cytoplasmic ratio
Cells indicating intrepithelial cell changes ie. Cellsof mild dysplasia
Cells of invasive cancer ie. Cells of invasive squamous cell cancer
[9] advanced abnormal smears may contain a good deal of blood. Why [2 MARKS]
ulcerating or fungating or hemorrhagic lesion occurring in the vagina due to invasive cervical carcinoma.
[10] draw a plan of a cross section through the vagina showing the location and cellular organisation of the squamous epithelium and its associated layers. Label your diagram and add appropriate magnification. (hand drawn diagram) [20 MARKS]
11] draw a detailed diagram of a few cells from each layer of the vaginal squamous epithelium. Label your diagram and add appropriate magnification. (hand drawn diagram) [25 MARKS]
[12] by comparing them with the normal cervical smear, list and sketch some features of abnormal cells shown in smears of CIN 1, CIN 2, CIN 3 (carcinoma in situ), and in invasive carcinoma (hand drawn diagram) [25 MARKS] Read More
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