Exam Questions. Single Subject research design, interview with migrant workers, interviewer appearance problems, six threats to internal validity - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Internal validity is the extent to which the study helps one conclusively establish a cause and effect relationship between the independent and dependent variables. This can be threatened by the following…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER94.3% of users find it useful
Exam Questions. Single Subject research design, interview with migrant workers, interviewer appearance problems, six threats to internal validity
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Exam Questions. Single Subject research design, interview with migrant workers, interviewer appearance problems, six threats to internal validity"

1.Confounding: A tertiary variable may also ends up affecting the dependent variable inadvertently, and its effect cannot be separated easily from the independent variable. There is a chance for confounding when the investigator has not studied the situation adequately and fails to identify the existence of such a variable. It could also happen that situational factors affect the data collection process and cause unforeseen confounding in spite of the efforts of the investigator.
An example would be a situation where two groups of students are given a speeded test simultaneously in different rooms. The first group is given minimal instructions, while the second group is given detailed instructions. During the test, one room experiences an electricity failure for a few moments that distracts the students. Now the final scores of the students are also affected by the fact that the two groups had dissimilar testing experiences.
2.Selection bias: This refers to the possibility that when the researcher divides the participants into groups, each group may be more homogeneous within itself than expected, and more distinct from the other groups on a significant tertiary variable. When this happens, the groups cannot be considered equal, and the resultant differences may be skewed in favour of one group or the other.
For example, a study attempted to compare the job satisfaction of workers in two different factories. Inadvertently data was collected from one factory just after the management had declared the results of their annual appraisal, while it was collected just before appraisal results were declared at the second factory. In this situation, the effect of declared versus anticipated results had contaminated the results.
3. Maturation: The process of being part of a study can have an effect on the individual. In long term studies, time and experiences can influence the study results. Even in smaller studies, subjects often learn to respond to a test situation, or start to experience fatigue from the testing process – both situations affecting the quality of responses. Such maturation on part of the subjects – if not an objective of the study – can affect the final analysis. For example, if a subject is exposed to similar test material regularly, s/he may start getting better scores simply due to practice. 4. Regression towards the Mean: Test scores of individuals fluctuate a little even without external influence. When study participants are chosen for their extreme scores on the basis of a single test and their scores at the end of the study are closer to the population mean than they were before; it could be due to a natural fluctuation and not the experience during the study. For example, students who are at the bottom of a class are chosen for remedial work, often score a little better a couple of weeks into the remedial classes. This change in scores may simply be due to a natural fluctuation and not due to the classes. 5. Diffusion: Sometimes it is difficult to keep the different groups being studied isolated from each other, and the resultant interaction can dilute the experiments' results. This can create a misrepresentation of the relationship between the independent and dependant variables. An example would be when an experimenter selects participants for a control and test group from the same class of students. Students who know each other may chance to discuss the experiment and exchange information that was to be controlled. At such times, the distinction in the results of the two groups would less. 6. Experimenter bias: Subjects respond even to subtle differences in the behaviour of the experimenter. If the experimenter has Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Exam Questions. Single Subject research design, interview with migrant Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Exam Questions. Single Subject Research Design, Interview With Migrant Essay)
“Exam Questions. Single Subject Research Design, Interview With Migrant Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Current Problems With Migrant Workers
...Drinking and Sexual Risk Among Mexican Migrant Workers on Their Community of Origin. Human Organization, Fall2009, Vol. 68 Issue 3, p328-339 Hopf, D. & Hatzichristou, C. 1992. Migrant Workers' Children: School Problems in the Host Country and in the Country of Origin after the Return Home. [Online] Available at: [Accessed 06 May 2012] International Labor Organization. 2012. Migrant Workers. [Online] Available at:...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay
Threats to Internal and External Validity
...times. This asks the question: Does the effect of a particular treatment generalize to other times? It is hoped that Dr. Williams does not intend this experiment to be the basis of a conclusion that racial attitudes of doctors were like this in the past, or will be in a certain way in the future. The experiment should only measure the conditions for this particular time period. References Burns, P. (1997). “Securing Internal Validity – How do we avoid the threats?” Internet. Available at Campbell, D. and Stanley, J. (1963). Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Migrant Workers in North America
...?  Migrant Workers in North America           Migrant Workers in North America Introduction Migrant labor is a phrase used in the United States to refer to workers who move from one place to another harvesting product that need to be collected as soon as they are ripe. Migrant labor refers to a situation where unskilled and casual workers move steadily from a single area to another providing their services on an impermanent, normally recurrent, basis. Migrant labor in different forms is found in North America, South Africa, India, Western Europe, and the Middle East. In...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Proposal
Design SSRD (single subject research design) in early childhood a percentage of 40%. The number of baby signs decreased as the verbal language count increased. 2.4 Social Validity BSL as intervention is directed towards a question: Does it expand verbal development in early childhood? The intervention is valued and used appropriately by designated target groups and the intervention as used, has sufficient behavioral impact to substantially increase the probability of language expansion in target groups. The verifiable importance of the question is based on data and the value and appropriate use of the intervention (BSL) are enhanced through the use of conceptual frameworks for social marketing and behaviour change and...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Threats to validity
...Threats to validity Validity refers to the extent to which a research is accurate in drawing observations and conclusions over the researcher’s interest. Validity can be internal or external. While internal validity defines the researcher’s efficiency in conducting the research process within the selected group or sample, external validity refers to the degree to which the findings can be inferred to other settings such as a wider population or similar settings. An example of threat to validity is the...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Migrant workers to Saudi Arabia
...Migrant Workers to Saudi Arabia: Outline This paper discusses the following aspects about migrant workers to Saudi Arabia: Nationalities Migrant workers to Saudi Arabia are mostly from South Asian countries including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Religions Most migrant workers to Saudi Arabia are Muslims. Cultures Migrant workers to Saudi Arabia generally come from conservative cultures, so they find it easy to adjust in the conservative culture of Saudi Arabia. Economy Most migrant workers to Saudi Arabia come from countries...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Migrant labors workers abuse
...Migrant Labor Workers Abuse Migrant Labor Workers rights are abused because they come from poor countries This paper aims to support the hypothesis that migrant labor workers rights are abused because they come from poor countries. Examples are particularly drawn from United Arab Emirates because it has recently undergone significant development with respect to infrastructure while involving a large number of foreign workers. Research indicates that UAE has completed the largest construction projects in the last few decades however, the government has remained unsuccessful in providing basic rights to the labor who constitute around half million of the migrant population (UAE: Workers Abused in Construction Boom, 2006). The most... ...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Migrant Workers to Qatar
...of Foreign Labour in the Economy Out of the ten countries with the highest income per capita in the world, seven are Asia or the Middle East. These countries have a significant number of foreign migrant workers (FMWs) which contribute immensely to the growth of these economies. Much research has focused on the impact of foreign workers on the domestic labour market such as downward trend in local wages. Little research has been done on the contribution of these workers to the economic growth of these countries (Tan, 2013). He also argues that the reason for this omission is due to completeness because evaluating the effect of FMWs must...
2 Pages(500 words)Article
Validity in Quantitative Research Design
...Validity in Quantitative Research Design The key potential concern that could be raised about the internal validity in the study of Metheny et al., (2010) is related to experimental effects of the entire study. The potential threat related to the internal validity of the research can be strengthen through the implementation of various strategies before undertaking the proposed study or research. The strategies that should be helpful in strengthening the study include proper evidence and trustworthiness in the quasi-experimental studies. For instance, if the study proposed...
1 Pages(250 words)Assignment
Internal vs. External Validity in Research
...versus external) over the other? Is there a way to design a study or series of studies to have high internal as well as high external validity? What would be the benefit? There is a benefit of achieving a high level of one type of validity over the other, based on the nature of the research in question. If the research undertaken is specific to a certain environment only, then high internal validity might be beneficial. On the other hand, if the research seeks application to the whole population, then high external validity might be beneficial (Mitchell...
2 Pages(500 words)Coursework
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Exam Questions. Single Subject research design, interview with migrant workers, interviewer appearance problems, six threats to internal validity for FREE!
Contact Us