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Human Health and Environment - Assignment Example

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The author of the paper gives a detailed information about the differences and similarities of yellow fever and malaria and the problem of malaria in Africa. The author also examines the dose-response curve and the toxicology science that studies poison and its effects…
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Human Health and Environment
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Download file to see previous pages In 1793, more than 5000 Americans died as a result of the yellow fever epidemic which started in Philadelphia. (Murphy, J., 2003) There are an estimated 200,000 cases of yellow fever, causing 30,000 deaths, worldwide each year. (Yellow Fever, 2009) On the other hand, The World Health Organization’s Guidelines for the treatment of malaria (2010) has reported an estimated 863,000 deaths in 2008 due to malaria. Still another similar factor yellow fever and malaria share is that they almost have the same symptoms. Both diseases make the victim feel feverish and body ache.
Conversely, yellow fever can be different from malaria, too. Firstly, where malaria has a cure thanks to the medicine quinine (Agosta, W., 1997), there is only a vaccine for yellow fever and a cure dependent on the resulting illness manifested by the patient. (Hayes, J.J., 1858) The said vaccine was discovered by Max Theiler in 1937. (Monath, T., 2010) Secondly, the incubation fever for yellow fever is only for 3-4 days, malaria victims only show signs of the symptoms after 7 to 30 days. (WHO, 2010) Last but not the least, while yellow fever has mostly affected people in Africa and Latin America, deaths and cases of malaria are in sub-Saharan Africa. (WHO, 2010)
1.b) A mosquito’s bite causes malaria and yellow fever. Since North America goes through the winter season, egg production stops and there is no drive for the female mosquito to take blood meals. (Humphreys, M., 2001) Because there is no need to bite humans for blood, these diseases are not threats in North America.
1.c.) No single country in sub-Saharan African has shown a substantial decline in malaria, according to WHO’s Africa Malaria Report 2004 (Crowe, S., 2003) This can be attributed to two things: Africa is a tropical country and a poor one at that. Tropical countries only have two seasons: sunny and rainy. Inasmuch, the climate in tropical countries can be warm, humid or cool. ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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