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Chemistry and the Environment - Essay Example

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Describe the general properties of the atmosphere known as troposphere, stratosphere and the ionosphere. Describe the composition of unpolluted air at sea level.The unpolluted air or atmosphere at sea level is chiefly made of gases kept in place by the effect of Earth’s gravity at an average temperature of about 14 C.
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Chemistry and the Environment
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"Chemistry and the Environment"

Download file to see previous pages Nitrogen and oxygen predominantly comprise the Earth’s atmosphere at approximately 78.1% and 20.9% respectively while there exists trace amounts of certain elements as argon, water vapor, and carbon dioxide to account for the remaining 1%. Negligible quantities of dust, volcanic ash, and other particulates in solid form are also present in the atmosphere with the main gases to facilitate the formation of clouds. In general, Earth’s atmosphere assumes the role of shielding all living things against the sun’s harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. It keeps the temperature balanced within 24 hours as well.
At different temperatures, the atmosphere is further subdivided into layers beginning from the Earth’s surface where troposphere lies between 7 to 14 kms followed by the stratosphere reaching the 50-km altitude. This layer is conducive for airplanes due to stability and with increasing temperature, only minimal amount of water vapor and other components may be detected whereas the troposphere consists of weather occurrences. The ionosphere, on the other hand, makes less than 0.1% of the total mass of the Earth’s atmosphere and the sun’s energy is radiates at its fullest on this layer so that ionization takes place and molecules split as they undergo the process of gaining or losing electrons. (2) Explain what constitutes a good fuel. Evaluate the social value of fossil and alternative fuels and the use of unleaded petrol. What are the sources of pollutants from fuel combustion and what impact do they (COx, SOx, NOx and O3) have on the environment?  Essentially, a good fuel must be one that releases heat energy in huge amount when burnt besides the attributes of being less hazardous when used and stored. If the fuel is good, it would be least likely to generate toxic substances or pollutants with unpleasant odor in the environment and between renewable and non-renewable energy resources, renewable energy resources prove to be the chief source of good fuel. Algae-based biofuels for instance may constitute a renewable alternative fuel used extensively in generating electricity. Aside from the renewably extracted geothermal energy, biomass, hydroelectric energy, solar, and wind powers, good fuel alternatives are also available as bioalcohols, ammonia, vegetable oil, hydrogen, non-fossil methane and natural gas. This approach with more secure options may be perceived to remedy issues with health and environmental impact depending upon the number of industries that prefer usage of energy from a renewable source. The fact that It normally takes nearly 700 million years to produce fossil fuels out of decaying plant and animal matters fossilized upon exposure to extreme levels of heat and pressure establishes the social value of fossil fuels which pertain to fuels formed out of the organic remains of prehistoric plants and animals that undergo natural process of anaerobic decomposition and these fuels are chiefly comprised in coal, gas, and oil. Besides being a flexible non-renewable energy source, based on their structure, depositional environment, and thermal reactions, fossil fuels reflect the social relevance of drawing a potential attraction due to the fact that most of world’s reserves of oil and natural gas come from deformed rocks whereas a great quantity of coal may be derived from sedimentary rock layers that do not undergo deformation. By combustion or fuel evaporation, mobile sources that pollute the air are either on-road sources or non-road sources. “On-road” or highway sources pertain to vehicles used on roads for transportation of passengers or freight such as light-duty vehicles (LDVs), heavy-duty ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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The topic of "Chemistry and the Environment" is quite popular among the tasks in college. Still, this paper opens a new perspective of seeing the problem. I’ll use the idea for my own essay.
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