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Microbiology is a branch of biology which is considered vital in bringing a profound understanding of microorganisms and how they effect and react on other living organisms. Microbes are tiny organisms that can only be seen with an aid of a microscope. The tiny nature of microbes has revolutionized the use of stains to aid in having a vivid and transparent picture of microbes under microscope (Ryu 60). Because the bacterial cell is transparent, motile and difficult to see when using microscope, cells are stained to make them more visible. Staining tends to provide a reliable and clear means for observing bacteria’s morphology, relative size, and cellular arrangement. Gram staining and simple staining are the ultimate procedures that were used.
1. Place a loopful of culture into a test tube consisting of sterile distilled water so as to make a suspension of bacterial cells on the water. Place that bacterial suspension on a clear or clean slide. This will give room for the bacteria to air dry.
2. Heat fixing the bacteria cells by passing the slide quickly over the flame (Bunsen burner) three or four times, ensuring that the glass surface is exposed to the flame. Ensure that the slide is not so hot to be uncomfortable when touch.
Simple stains allow us to distinguish the ultimate shape (morphology) of the mounted bacteria. Bacillus Subtillus and E. coli turned out to be rod-shaped. Many bacilli tend to occur singularly, but in some cases, chains are also observed. Bacilli are greatly in diameter and length. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are spherical (cocci). They may culminate singularly, in clusters such as Staphylococcus aureus or others in pairs such as Streptococcus pneumonia. R. rubrum was observed to be a curved bacterium (spirillum). It culminates singularly.
The bacteria that stains blue is considered to be a Gram-positive while the bacteria that stains pink is considered to be Gram negative.
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(Westermeier 2006). Agarose gel electrophoresis is the most common and easiest technique to separate the DNA fragments. Agarose is a polymer that forms helical linking strands between the molecules and they are held together by hydrogen bonds. Based on the concentration of the agarose in the gel, the pore size also varies.
Glycogen is preserved in the slides using the alcoholic preservation methods. The use of formalin solution will help to reduce the shrinkage and polarization of the tissue. Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain is the most commonly used stain to identify the structures containing large amounts of glycogen, glycoprotein, mucin, proteoglycan and other basement membranes.
However, this force exhibits significant variations based on any given body’s location on earth’s surface besides influenced by both altitude and latitude (Hu?ttl 19). Premise asserting effects due to altitude states g changes inversely relative to the distance from the world’s center; hence, its values are 9.78m/s2 at equator and 9.83m/s2 at poles (Hu?
In the present study, the unknown microorganism present in the Probiotics, maozrella cheese and camembert cheese were analyzed using the biochemical tests such as catalase, oxidase, latex agglutination, Gram’s staining and string test. From the biochemical results it was identified that the unknown microorganisms present in the given samples of probiotics, mozeralla cheese and camembert cheese were Lactobacillus sp, Streptococcus sp and Penicillium sp.
Using this model, we aim to understand the extent of change in the GI tract microbial count of streptozotocin injected diabetic rats compared to in normal rats based on a comparative assay of their glucose content, lactate content and the ratio of the GI tract to the body weights.
For any vibration to occur, a restoring force must be in existence. In this respect, a restoring force is identified in a pendulum. The restoring force is applied by the springs as long as Hooke’s law is observed. The restoring force, therefore, is
After changing the mass of the bob and repeat the same process (i.e. table 2), the comparison of “T” values of 81cm and 64 cm long simple pendulums reflect similar results as in table 1. This means that the 81cm long pendulum had a
It is also during this initial test that we can also check the shape of the bacteria being identified. We know that Staphylococcus and Micrococcus are circular in shape, unlike the gram-(+) Bacilli that is
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