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Localisation of the Prostate - Coursework Example

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The paper "Localisation of the Prostate" highlights that several localisation modalities are now available for radiation therapy of the prostate in an effort to prevent unnecessary dose to healthy tissues which might develop into secondary malignancies…
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Localisation of the Prostate
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Download file to see previous pages The prostate is one of the organs in the male reproductive system responsible in releasing fluid to alkalinise the semen (Hugging, Scott & Heinen, 1942) in order for the sperms to survive in the acidic environment of the female vagina. It is divided into four zones, namely the peripheral, central, transition and anterior fibromuscular zones (Meyers, 2000), while it can also be divided more commonly into four lobes, namely the anterior, posterior, lateral and middle lobes.
The prostate is located superior to the anus, anal sphincter, bulbourethral gland, testes, penis and the urogenital diaphragm. It is inferior to the urinary bladder and the seminal vesicle. It is anterior to the rectum, coccyx, common ejaculatory duct and also the seminal vesicles. It is posterior to the symphysis pubis. On the medial part of the prostate lies the prostatic urethra. Its proximity to the rectum allows the prostate to be palpable in rectal examinations. Among those structures commonly harmed by ineffective localisation of the prostate, radiotherapy is the rectum, bones (symphysis pubis, pubic bones, and the coccyx) and the seminal vesicles.
The veins where the blood flows away from the prostate are the prostatic venous plexus, pudcordal plexus, vesicle plexus and the internal iliac vein. Lymph nodes around the prostate are the external iliac lymph nodes, internal iliac lymph nodes and the sacral lymph nodes. These venous and lymphatic structures are responsible for the possible metastasis of malignant prostate cells to the surrounding structures beyond the prostate. Radiotherapy beyond the prostate, especially to the lymph nodes is necessary as cancer reaches beyond stage 2, while the venous system will allow the predictability of metastasis to other organs.
The cancer of the prostate begins with genetic changes within the prostate cells triggered by different possible risk factors such as genes, aging, race, environmental, increased saturated fat intake, decreased fruit and vegetable intake and vitamin D, and some sexually-transmitted disease, though the exact cause of prostate cancer is currently unknown (Black & Hawks, 2005).   ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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