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The paper "Human Systems - Respiration" underlines that the respiratory system is highly essential for a person’s survival and it is very hard to replace it once it is damaged. In fact, a few years ago, when stem cell therapy and organ transplants were not discovered, even replacing seemed impossible. …
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The air then passes onto the interior of the nose called the Nasal Cavity/ Passage. It is lined with a sticky mucous membrane and contains tiny, surface hairs called cilia. The mucus and cilia collect dust, bacteria, and other particles in the air. The mucus also helps in moistening the air. Under the mucous membrane, there are a large number of capillaries. The blood within these capillaries helps to warm the air as it passes through the nose. Thus, the nasal cavity serves as a moistener, a filter, and to warm up the air before it reaches the lungs. Then comes the Pharynx, or the throat, which is followed by the Larynx, which is the voice-box. There are two pairs of membranes that are stretched across the inside of the larynx called the vocal cords. When air is expired, these cords vibrate and by controlling these vibrations, one is able to produce different sounds. Also, epiglottis, a cartilaginous flap prevents food from entering the wind-pipe during swallowing. Both the pharynx and larynx form part of the respiratory tract. The larynx opens up into the Trachea or the windpipe. The trachea is a tube approximately 12 cm in length and 2.5 cm wide. Rings of cartilage within its walls prevent it from collapsing during expiration. It is also covered with a ciliated mucous membrane, which keeps foreign particles and mucus out. The trachea divides into two cartilage-ringed tubes called Bronchi. Also lined with ciliated cells, they form the two main passages for entry of air into the lungs. After entering the lungs, the bronchi divide and spread in a tree-like manner into smaller tubes called Bronchial Tubes. The bronchial tubes divide and then subdivide, becoming thinner and having less and less cartilage in their walls. Eventually, they become a tiny group of tubes called. Each bronchiole ends in a tiny air chamber that contains many air-bags called Alveoli. At about one cell thick, the walls of these alveoli serve as the respiratory surface. They are thin, moist, and are surrounded by several numbers of capillaries.
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...? Importance of Effective Writing Skills in My Discipline School Importance of Effective Writing Skills in My Discipline I admit that I did not possess excellent skills in writing. A skill, though, can be attained and enhanced. I believe that human potential can be maximised to the utmost so that a person can perform the best that he or she can do. It is important that before one can improve a particular skill, he or she must be able to determine not only the strengths but also the weaknesses. Having recognized the need for me to improve my writing skills, and knowing that my potential for improvement is strong, I exerted extra effort to augment the elements that I need to manifest skillful writing. Development of writing skills... Importance ...
...Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
Table of Contents
Paper Proper 2
Materials and Methods 2
The two-part experiment involved tracking fermentation and respiration processes making use of carbon dioxide markers in gas height and in the production of carbonic acid respectively (ASPB Foundation n.d.; Nuffield Foundation 2013; The Regents of the University of California 2011)..
The goal of the experiment is to investigate respiration and fermentation reactions. Studying fermentation and respiration as done in this experiment has implications for industry, as fermentation reactions, for one, impact the way we produce an important...
...Cellular respiration After three steps during respiration, a molecule of glucose and 6 molecules of oxygen are converted to 6 molecules of carbon dioxide, water and energy (Rich, PR, 2003) as shown below.
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ----- 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP
However, the process of generating energy during cellular respiration is not as simple as the equation looks. Cellular respiration can be defined as a process of oxidizing fuel molecules such as glucose to carbon dioxide and water. The energy released during this process is held in the ATP molecules for all the energy consuming activities of the cell. The fuel molecules used by the cells include glucose, amino acids and fatty acids and the common electron acceptor or the oxidizing agent...
Respiratory function test parameters such as FEV1, FVC and PEF were obtained. Additional tests were performed to determine the effect of holding breath after hyperventilation and re-breathing of expired air compared to normal breathing of the subjects. In conclusion, the measured lung volumes were low in smokers compared to the non-smokers. Predicted normal lung volumes were calculated as reference. Primatesta (1998) stated that age, height and gender were also noted as factors that affect the lung volumes of the subjects. Lower lung volumes may indicate early deterioration of the lungs affirmed by Polatli et al. (December 2000).
Years ago, people enjoy smoking thought it was harmless and relieves tension stated by Kenny (Apr...
...HumanRespiration NORMAL BREATHING A fully annotated trace demonstrating a normal breathing pattern is shown in the diagram labelled Normal Breathing.
The Tidal Volume (TV) is the quantity of air that a person is breathing in and out under a normal resting respiratory cycle. The trace for normal breathing shows a reading varying between 3000cc of air and 4000cc. This shows a value for TV of 1000cc. Normal values for TV are 500cc.
Frequency of Breathing
The Frequency of Breathing is the number of breathing cycles per minute. One breathing cycle is an inhalation followed by an exhalation. In the trace for normal breathing, there are 15 cycles plotted over the time of 1 minute so the respiratory rate is 15 breaths per...
...) cardiac arrest brings about halt in respiratory activities or apnea. Therefore, we can infer that an increase in cardiac activity will bring about an increase in respiration rate. It may be hypothesized that the environmental temperature will affect humanrespiration. At colder temperature, the respiration rate is likely to increase.
The experiment also gives us an elaborate idea regarding the process of respiration. We may also form an idea about the amount of carbon dioxide released with every exhalation. Again, the experiment exposes the composition and solubility of different elements of air and hence the experiment helps us understand the difference between the activities of a water breather and an air breather...
... glycolysis in the sense that it allows glycolysis to continue using the products of fermentations. In other words, fermentation does not result in the making of ATP, but instead it allows the process of glycolysis to continue. Fermentation is also responsible for the removal of electrons from NADH molecules and thus recycling NAD+ molecules for the use in the glycolysis process.
6. In the human muscle during anaerobic respiration, glucose is broken down into two pyruvate molecules, and is later converted to lactic acid.
7. Fermentation results in the production of carbon dioxide as a waste product and NAD that is responsible for the return process to glycolysis.
I. Approximately 30 to 34 ATP molecules produced via chemiosmosis
Therefore, aerobic respiration only occurs when oxygen is present. The main food product that is utilized in this process is glucose. When glucose is oxidized, there is a production of energy, carbon dioxide, and water. The released energy is the form of Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP). The process of aerobic respiration can be summarized using the equation C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP) (Starr & McMillan 2012, p56). There are three main stages through which aerobic respiration takes place; Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and the Electron Transport Chain.
This process of aerobic respiration occurs in cytosol part of the cell. During this process, glucose is oxidized partially and broken down into pyruvate, which is a 3 carb...
..., blood vessels, capillaries, blood, spleen, trachea, lungs, and pericardium (Starr and McMillan 2013).
Structure of the Respiratory SystemRespiration involves inhalation and exhalation of air. The respiratory system is a structure that enables human beings to breath. As stated earlier, respiration involves absorption of oxygen from the atmosphere and elimination of Carbon dioxide. The respiratory system is identified by different structures from the nose to the chest. Some of the structures are the nose, throat, larynx, trachea, primary bronchi, and alveolar duct. The structures of respiration are categorised into lower and the upper respiratory tract. The nose, mouth and the trachea form the upper part, which allows air in and out...
... Why sodium chloride (NaCl) has no effect on cellular respiration Cellular respiration is the process by which food molecules like glucose are being oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and molecules of water. The energy released during the breakdown process is in the form of ATP, which is used in cellular activities. The process occurs in all organisms (Meldrum 22).
C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O → 12H2O + 6 CO2
NaCl has no effect on the process of cellular respiration because of the following reasons;
NaCl has no effect on temperature availability. Respiration rate is high in warm temperatures than in cold environment regardless of salt availability. This is because the effect of temperature is controlled by the activity of enzymes. Warm...
The employee was sent to HR for a final briefing where he mentioned that he had been requesting a change in the shift for the last few weeks he has to attend to his ailing father. His superior continuously ignored the request. The employee was skill and aptitude tested and reassigned to a different project. This is a small incident where an HR professional can play a vital role. An organization is also constantly looking for such solutions from its Human Resource Department. It is this expertise and skill, which a budding professional from any institute should be equipped. Such valuable certification programs initiated by the Human Resource Department surely help build a successful organization. The Human resource depart...
... activities such as cutting down trees, lighting campfires and not putting them out properly after use, casually tossed cigarette butts, lighting fireworks, discharging of firearms, scattering broken glass and chain- saws that cause damage and spoil the natural ecosystem. Poaching or hunting is another human activity that threatens to make certain species of animals, birds and reptiles extinct.
Deserts are the world’s most harsh, spectacular and beautiful habitats with specialized but fragile eco- systems that support or house a unique and specialized diversity of flora and fauna. Due to their highly specialized nature, the species that live there, are essentially vulnerable to even the slightest disturbance in their habitat...
This research essay analyses the above statement and arrives at a conclusion. Integration of the provisions of ECHR into U.K’s domestic law by way of HRA 1998 can be regarded as revolutionary as it facilitates the majority of the ECHR rights provisions directly applicable in the U.K. Before that integration, a U.K Court has to presume that when there is a clash between U.K’s domestic law and ECHR rights provision, the ECHR rights provision will always prevail. This principle has been laid down in R v Secretary of Home Dept ex parte Brind1 and R v Secretary of Home Dept ex parte Thakrar. 2 Courts have now the power to declare any statue which they find incompatible with ECHR provisions and order for fine-tunin...
Project planning involves a lot of factors and areas that we need to address for the effective management and handling of the project. The aim of this report is to provide a deep insight into some of the main areas that we need to address for the project of Adams's family farmhouse renovation. These issues are project team communication, project risk management, and deadline handling. Effective communication in a project provides a huge advantage regarding the better working and handling of the project. I have selected a very significant project regarding the preservation of the old and historical places. Here we require effective communication to provide better interaction among the designer, developers, and history preservation...
The allocation of resources is dependent on the information regarding the financial condition of the firm. Here comes the role of accounting, which provides all the required financial information to the investors through several financial reports. There There are two classifications of accounting 1) financial accounting and 2) management accounting. Financial accounting is the one which furnishes all the financial information to the investors and management accounting is used at the micro-level where the internal allocation of the funds takes place. Accounting is one of the most crucial components of any organization as it provides all those financial information that is used to make the economic and financing decision making.&nbs...
..., they will have the authority to adjust rapidly as well as charge productively to altering company, marketplace as well as business necessities by way of ERP resolution that comprise (Yusufa, Gunasekaranb, & Abthorpe, 2004):
ERP Human Capital Management
ERP Corporate Services
Supply Chain Management
Supply chain management is integration of supplier, distributer, and customer logistics requirements into one interconnected course of action (Laudon & Laudon, 1999, p. 55) and (Murray, 2009). The inspiration of attaining privileged client pleasure as well as enhancing working performance of Club IT in the contemporary digital financial system in the course of an incorporated, internet enabled supply chain clears...
An assessment regarding the binding nature of the provisions of the UDHR was made in this work. The UDHR was instrumental in the development of international law, specifically the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). Furthermore, the role of ICCPR and ICESCR, which derive from the UDHR were examined. This was done by referring to case law and the opinions of various authors. It also analyzed UN Charter provisions, such as the preamble, Article 1(3), 2, 13(1), 51, 55, 56, 62(2) and 68.3
This work arrived at conclusions, by establishing the binding nature of the UDHR on the member states. The UDHR was rendered binding...
Notably, management professionals would agree, HRM system is an integration of various management practices with ‘people’ at its prime focus (Jackson, Schuler & Werner, 2008); and, the common factor between business organisations and educational institutions is ‘people,’ although their goals differ. This could be one main reason for attempting to implement HRM in educational institutions, although it is customized to organisational benefit.
Halachmi’s (2002a) extensive analysis on performance measurement clearly indicates the need for performance measurement in order to achieve the goals; and, it, in turn, establishes targets aligned to organisational goals and expectations; makes evalu...
The extensive literature review has been undertaken to justify the actions of Patni and to appreciate its initiatives that enhance employee participation. The steps taken by this Indian IT giant in institutionalizing organizational learning have been discussed largely from the perspective of human resource management and it has also been discussed as to how knowledge generation takes place within the organization.
This report will aim at critically evaluating the role of human networks in knowledge creation and knowledge sharing within Patni Computer Systems Ltd. (Patni). For this purpose, an extensive literature review will be undertaken and various theories pertaining to human resource management will be made use of....
The different cultural expressions that are located within art are designed to create a specific expression for the art that is used. This connects throughout time to create a universal expression that can be understood within the visual arts. While each of these is based in a different medium and has specific techniques used for a certain time period, there is also a connection with the cultural and human experiences that are linked within this. The common function that is used in both of these is to create a perception of human thoughts for the culture of the time. This is achieved by using specific techniques and contrasts to achieve the end goal of identifying the thoughts of a time period.
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