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Human Systems - Respiration - Article Example

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The paper "Human Systems - Respiration" underlines that the respiratory system is highly essential for a person’s survival and it is very hard to replace it once it is damaged. In fact, a few years ago, when stem cell therapy and organ transplants were not discovered, even replacing seemed impossible. …
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Download file to see previous pages The air then passes onto the interior of the nose called the Nasal Cavity/ Passage. It is lined with a sticky mucous membrane and contains tiny, surface hairs called cilia. The mucus and cilia collect dust, bacteria, and other particles in the air.  The mucus also helps in moistening the air.  Under the mucous membrane, there are a large number of capillaries.  The blood within these capillaries helps to warm the air as it passes through the nose. Thus, the nasal cavity serves as a moistener, a filter, and to warm up the air before it reaches the lungs.
Then comes the Pharynx, or the throat, which is followed by the Larynx, which is the voice-box. There are two pairs of membranes that are stretched across the inside of the larynx called the vocal cords. When air is expired, these cords vibrate and by controlling these vibrations, one is able to produce different sounds. Also, epiglottis, a cartilaginous flap prevents food from entering the wind-pipe during swallowing. Both the pharynx and larynx form part of the respiratory tract.
The larynx opens up into the Trachea or the windpipe. The trachea is a tube approximately 12 cm in length and 2.5 cm wide.  Rings of cartilage within its walls prevent it from collapsing during expiration. It is also covered with a ciliated mucous membrane, which keeps foreign particles and mucus out.
The trachea divides into two cartilage-ringed tubes called Bronchi. Also lined with ciliated cells, they form the two main passages for entry of air into the lungs. After entering the lungs, the bronchi divide and spread in a tree-like manner into smaller tubes called Bronchial Tubes. The bronchial tubes divide and then subdivide, becoming thinner and having less and less cartilage in their walls.  Eventually, they become a tiny group of tubes called.
Each bronchiole ends in a tiny air chamber that contains many air-bags called Alveoli. At about one cell thick, the walls of these alveoli serve as the respiratory surface. They are thin, moist, and are surrounded by several numbers of capillaries.   ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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