Despite the fact that double-blind studies are a popular subject, only a few recognize their true importance. It’s easy enough to understand their importance only it is more difficult to accept their consequences. This is mainly because they go against relying on one’s direct personal experience…
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This is mainly due to the presence of confounding variables. So a double blind study serves not just to be a proof of efficacy but also a solid indication as to whether a treatment really works or not. What is a Double-Blind Study? It is in the nature of a randomized double-blind trial which is also placebo controlled that is medical in nature to have subjects that are given false treatment, also known as a placebo, and the researchers as well as the subjects are unable to distinguish between the two right up till the point when the study is concluded. This is why the study is referred to as ‘blind’. Also the way the subjects are given the treatment or the placebo is through random selection and hence the term ‘randomized’. Why Double-Blind Studies? There are several reasons why for a number of treatments the most effective question that can address the research question is that of a randomized double-blind, placebo controlled study. These studies which mainly aim to address the central question: “Does a certain Treatment X benefit Condition Y?” In order to fully understand the significance and the role that a randomized double blind study plays is by looking at the numerous problems that can rise when we attempt to address this question in any other way. Firstly the major significance of randomized double blind studies is reflected in the fact that medical investigations are an area of study in which the application of direct common sense observation does not confirm the accumulation of accurate results. It was only through the use of double-blind studies that researchers came to the realization that their own sense of sight was unreliable; the simple reason being a number of confounding factors. The Confounding Factors The influences which have an impact on the research and can make it seem like treatments that are ineffective are actually effective. These confounding elements are the sole reason for which medical treatments done over centuries is deemed of no value. Some of the key confounding factors are: Placebo effect The placebo effect is the procedure by which the influence of suggestion is what results in an improvement in symptoms. There are certain kinds of research that respond positively to a placebo treatment. Some examples of conditions that are responsive to a placebo treatment are menopausal hot flashes and certain kinds of pain. Although statistics show that only 30 percent of people are responsive to placebos but it can be as high as 70 percent for some treatments (McLennan, 2001) The results of placebo effects are astounding to those who experience it. An example is that of arthroscopic surgery where surgeons would think it really worked for knee arthritis. Then a research came out that showed that a pretend surgery would end up with the same level of satisfaction and long term advantages as the real one (Moseley et al., 2002). Generally individuals do not react happily when told that the positive effects were a result of a placebo. However the positive results of a placebo treatment are in a lot of cases undeniable. For example, in a double-blind, placebo controlled study done on the carpal tunnel syndrome of about thirty subjects showed that the use of a static magnet had a lot of advantages and it was found the same results were achieved with the use of fake magnets. Also in a randomized double-blind trial with about 67 subjects who were suffering from hip pain produced noteworthy improvements only by
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Randomized controlled trials provide the most reliable and detailed information about the efficacy of medical treatments which cannot be fulfilled by observational studies. Although Radiation therapy provides adverse side effects making ethical issues, investigators should not be discouraged to conduct clinical trials considering the importance and possibility to address most of the ethical concerns.
Another mechanism is that to ensure compliance, the agency employs more than 1200 inspectors and investigators who visit drug manufacturing facilities every year. If it finds the firm violating the law, the agency encouraged the offending company to intentionally
This style is necessary when an intervention can only be administered to people as part of a group, such as a public education promotion as in the scenario described. In this case, a National Awareness and Early Detection Initiative has been developed with the purpose of leading individuals to earlier diagnosis of lung cancer, and this would benefit from being delivered to the sample as it would be in reality.
Systematic sampling however follows a defined approach with unequal probability for each sample space elements. One of the advantages of randomized control trials over systematic allocation is its ability to eliminate bias. Researchers and participants in randomized controlled trials lack influence of sample selection and allocation to either of the experimental groups and this eliminates chances of sampling bias.
Reading even not-to-small letters becomes strained because the letters double up and blur, and seeing and hearing become more difficult in general. One gets tired more easily, and could not bend down to retrieve a dropped pen or climb a chair to reach a high shelf.
A variable is something whose value can be different in the research subject and differ from constants in that constants always have the same values. Since the constant remains the same for all, it is more important to define the variables since they are the things being investigated in the research.
od of collecting data that also involve designing an experiment, examining the data that have been collected and drawing conclusion and then preparing a report for the findings. The method to be used depends on the source of information they are drawn on, how the information is
1997). However, the concept was derived from collecting symptoms from people exposed to various forms of microwave radiation and remains controversial.
Another case-history type study reported 40 users of mobile phone ring tone Umbrella Rihanna who complained of stress due to mobile phone rings tone and burning or a dull ache in the temporal, occipital or auricular areas (Hocking, 1998).
Correlational. A method that finds “predictive relationships among variables that are measured” (Zechmeister et al., 2009, p. 34). One variable is seen to predict the outcome of another variable. Experimental. A method used “for identifying cause-and-effect relationships between variables” (Zechmeister et al., 2009, p.
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