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Global Communication and Propaganda - Assignment Example

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The assignment "Global Communication and Propaganda" demonstrates that name-calling has been defined as “…the use of labels to project an idea in a favorable or unfavorable light” (Vincent, 2006, p. 243). This technique is meant to create negative emotions that discourage an objective assessment…
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Global Communication and Propaganda
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A classical example is the use of the terms “collateral damage” during the Vietnam War. This approach was used as a way of distorting the fact that innocent people had been killed in the war zones or the notion that the warfare technology employed was unsophisticated (Vincent, 2006, p. 246).
Image transfer refers to an attempt to tap positive public image portrayed by a concept or entity and share or transfer this publicity by associating with another product, group or program. The images or symbols are used to create positive emotions surrounding the issue. The US employs this technique through advertising to transfer its cultural products across the globe through motion pictures, film, music, and fashion (Vincent, 2006, p. 247).
Testimonial refers to the use of the famous or familiar but unpopular individual to depict a product, group or program in a positive or negative manner. President George W. Bush used this technique in March 2012 accompanied by Bono, a U2 rock musician, in a speech delivered at the Inter-American Development Bank. This approach sought to garner support for his foreign policy and support (Vincent, 2006, p. 248).
Plain folks are employed by communicators to convince their target audience that their ideas are valid or correct because they resonate with the views of other commonplace citizens. President Bush Jr. used the image of the “Mission Accomplished” photo following the successful duty in Iraqi to depict the notion of a commander in chief that is fully in control (Vincent, 2006, p. 250).
Card stacking employs selective presentation of facts, misrepresentation of information and a combination of confusing, logical and illogical statements with the intention of hiding the truth from the audience and discouraging informed decision-making. Hitler employed the “Big Lie” approach in attributing the defeat of Nazi Germany in the First World War by the Jews to the influence of the media (Vincent, 2006, p.251).
Bandwagon effect employs the notion that since everybody is doing something, the public should just accept it and follow suit without raising questions. This technique was employed during the Bush administration in support of his foreign policy and war on terrorism. Anyone who questioned the foreign policies was branded non-patriotic and a supporter of terrorism (Vincent, 2006, p. 152).
Question 2: Terrorism and propaganda
Terrorism was first employed by the dictatorial French government during the French Revolution of 1789 to gain control over its subjects. In the 19th century, terrorism evolved and became increasingly associated with non-governmental movements and the assassination of oppressive leaders with the intention of catalyzing revolutions. The 20th century was marked by the evolution of terrorism from not only the assassination of political leaders and presidents but also the opposition of European colonialists. After the ousting of European regimes, terrorism evolved into local bickering and assassinations as indigenous populations sought leverage for leadership claims in the wake of independence. Towards the end of the 20th century, terrorism evolved into the religious and cultural bearing with the emergence of Osama Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda. The modern forms of terrorism have been demonstrated through international conflicts and mass murders. Radical Muslims have emerged and sought to gain control over the Christians in the Southern Philippines (Vincent, 2006, p. 259). The most troubling form of terrorism, experienced today, is the assumption that perpetuating some forms of violence against innocent civilians would prove persuasive in demonstrating the incompetence of government and leaders to protect its citizens(261). Today, acts of terrorism have been branded as the modern forms of propaganda, which “…attempts to sway public opinion” (Vincent, 2006, p. 262). This aspect is mainly because the terrorists depend on “…extensive playtime on television and presence on front pages of newspapers worldwide” (Vincent, 2006, p. 262), to advance the fear and alter public opinion.
Question 3: Definition of Propaganda
There are very many differing opinions and perspectives concerning the components and nature of propaganda. This phenomenon makes it very difficult to develop a universal definition of the concept and meaning of propaganda. Doob defines propaganda as “…an attempt to affect the personalities and control the behavior of individuals towards ends considered unscientific or of doubtful value in society at a particular time” (Vincent, 2006, p. 235). On the other hand, Linebarger defines the concept of propaganda as “…the planned use of any form of public, or mass-produced communication designed to affect the minds and emotions of a given group for a specific purpose, whether military, economic or political”(Vincent, 2006, p.235). Although Vincent (2006, p.237) argues “…the definition of propaganda depends on the perspective of the beholder”, I tend to believe that Lanebarger’s definition best illustrates the concept and idea of propaganda. Linebarger's definition entails two main components, which constitute propaganda. Firstly, there is the use of the media and other communication tools to influence public opinion that is consistent with the definition offered by Vincent that there must be a form of persuasion or manipulation using channels of communication(Vincent, 2006). Secondly, the purpose of this communication must have a political, economic or military bearing, which according to Vincent is to marginalize “…the citizens in national dialogues and decision-making (Vincent, 2006, p. 241)” and to shift public focus from significant political concerns (Vincent, 2006, p. 240). Read More
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