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Classical And Scientific Schools Of Management Theory - Essay Example

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Management theory with the concern for how to get the most out of front-line workers in industrial and commercial concerns became very much a twentieth-century phenomenon. This essay discusses how the Classical and Scientific schools of management theory influence current management practice…
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Classical And Scientific Schools Of Management Theory
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Download file to see previous pages The top management agrees on the objectives, and the strategies and tactics, to achieve the goals they set for the enterprise they lead, by employing a large workforce to produce the goods, and provide the services for consumers the world over. Management theory with the concern for how to get the most out of front-line workers in industrial and commercial concerns became very much a twentieth-century phenomenon. Earlier, following the industrial revolution, large concentrations of workers were needed in mills and factories to mass produce goods which replaced agricultural and craftwork hitherto produced in the small rural family or communal units. In those days the managers were authoritarian and tyrannical when slave labor or indentured labor including child labor at starvation wages could be deployed at the behest of the ruling, the capitalist class. The world has changed since, and owners of capital can no longer treat labor as a disposable commodity. Trade Unions, Communism, and universal education along with worldwide markets meant that the old methods of almost forced, the repetitive back-breaking labor of the ‘dark satanic mills’ could no longer be sustained. New disciplines like economics, psychology, and sociology sprang up. These social sciences were called upon to build theories of management and organizational behavior that would explain and help understand the dynamics of an ever more sophisticated and demanding workforce. Early theories of management exemplified by the work of Frederick Winslow Taylor (1911) had been described colloquially as the ‘carrot and stick’ approach. Taylor coined the term ‘scientific management’ for his theory which was later simply referred to as ‘Taylorism’. He sought to break down tasks to their simplest elements so that an assembly line robot could perform them without any need for thinking. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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