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# Final Exam About Research Method Class - Essay Example

Summary
RESEACH METHODS Date Difference between probability sampling and non-probability sampling Probability sampling is a method of statistical sampling that uses any of the random sampling techniques to arrive at the target population…

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Download file to see previous pages This type of sampling method gives us the ability of calculating the sampling error since we know the probability through which each sample was arrived at. A valid example of application of the method would be when we want to seek the opinion of married men about an issue; the sampling population is all the married men who have an equal probability of being researched on (Ross & PekoI?z, 2007). Non-probability sampling on the other hand is a sampling method, which presents itself in different shapes and sizes. This method does not present an equal chance for each member or unit of the population of investigation to be surveyed i.e. it is biased. This method is that which most researchers employ since it is less tedious and quite cheap. Non- probability sampling method requires that a hypothetical model is designed that fits the data defined, the validity of the model defined may also be extremely difficult to verify. This is because there is the definition of the sample for investigation is done based on convenience through a selection of a unit, which fits within the block selected. An example of this takes place when survey is passed to someone and the person asked to send the same to a friend to expand the target population (Ross & PekoI?z, 2007). Unobtrusive research This is a form of non- reactive research method and it is employed on data collection majorly in social research. This form of research do not in any way interfere with the human research subjects because they are not the direct source of the required data for analysis. The required data is obtained indirect ways through relevant methodologies to get the necessary data from the research subjects. In social research, unobtrusive research should not be viewed as a substitute for the reactive methods such as questionnaires and interviews but instead additional measures to collect. This one method can easily be used to eliminate the biases that are presented by the reactive measures. In social research, the method defines the aspects qualitatively though at some times it can be employed quantitatively (Esterberg, 2002). Unobtrusive research method is mostly preferred because; it has few unethical considerations, it is also less costly. The method exists in three different types that are; content analysis, analysis of existing statistics, case studies. Content analysis is the analysis that involves the analysis of documents in a text. Such analysis can be either qualitative or quantitative in nature with an objective of identifying the patterns through the text. Content analysis a wide area of research; it entails thematic analysis, indexing and qualitative analysis. An example of this type of research is the analysis of photos, films and paintings. Analysis of existing statistics will entail the researcher going through valid and viable previously collected and analyzed data, which may be from government or relevant agencies. Analysis of the existing statistics is used as the main source of data for making general assumptions of individual elements to generalize on the population (Esterberg, 2002). Case studies otherwise called the analysis of comparative or historical research involve the examination of the society over a given period of time and comparing them with other societies. An example is the research that saw the transformation of society from savagery through barbarism to civilization. US anthropologist, Lewis Morgan, conducted this research. Pre-experimental research ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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