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The X and the Y Theories of Management - Research Paper Example

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The X and the Y Theories of Management Introduction Management styles can generally be defined as the manner in which managers or a leader in an organization or institution runs or leads, particularly in aspects pertaining to decision making. This involves policy designing by management to ensure that excellent governance and maximum productivity from employees…
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The X and the Y Theories of Management
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Download file to see previous pages Some leaders consider the role of decision making as solely theirs and engage no one else even when the issue at hand requires them to do so. Such managers allow no flexibility on the workers and expect them to follow the set guidelines. Other leaders are accommodating and therefore, give some level of independence to their employees, encourage teamwork, involve employee’s opinions in decision-making and often delegate duties. The X and Y theories are based on assumptions that human personality and behaviors differ and play a major role in determining the appropriate management styles to be applied. This paper focuses on the different management theories applied in managing different job types. The X theory by McGregor posits that management should intervene on the performance of its employees. This is by controlling their activities, altering their behaviors to guarantee their actions, are in line with wants of the organization, as well as inspiring them to ensure they direct all their effort towards progression of the organization (Fisher 12-17). The theory explain this by claiming that most human beings, hate responsibilities, dislike work, have no ambition, and thus require to be directed and sometimes threatened to work effectively. Another argument to support this theory is that people resist change, put their own needs above those of the organization, and value their security beyond all other things. Leaders using this theory in management frequently turn out to be autocratic (Stewart 2). The Y theory on the other hand, claims that people are not dormant and are always willing to direct their efforts towards the success of the organizations. However, the management is insensitive to their need of appropriate working environment. This would enable them grow individually and be in a position to contribute to organizational growth. The theory further argues that most employees prefer rewards to satisfy their self-esteem by encouraging them to be inventive, and imaginative other than work related rewards. Such rewards make the employee to feel secure and more committed to their work. Neither the X nor the Y theory is good or bad because they apply to different types of jobs and work settings. However when applied in wrong job settings, conflicts could arise in the management. Usage of theory Y by some managers can cause them loose control and being incapable of making final decisions as required. Theory Y could result in the manager being too judgmental on the doings of employees (Stewart 3). The X theory is applicable in a number of job types especially in the public service where organization structures obligate only those in higher administrative ranks to make and oversee implementation of policies. Revenue collection authorities are a good example of managements that follow the X theory. They fear that not only the citizens but also their employees may possibly cheat on them. They assume that employees are untrustworthy and thus try to monitor, supervise, and, control their operations. The employees end up wasting plenty of time writing reports to validate their decisions (Barnett web). They therefore, underperform, which emphasizes the manager’s mentality that they are incompetent. In military and most of the police departments, the superiors give orders that all those under them have to carry out without questioning their ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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