The X and the Y Theories of Management Introduction Management styles can generally be defined as the manner in which managers or a leader in an organization or institution runs or leads, particularly in aspects pertaining to decision making. This involves policy designing by management to ensure that excellent governance and maximum productivity from employees…
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Some leaders consider the role of decision making as solely theirs and engage no one else even when the issue at hand requires them to do so. Such managers allow no flexibility on the workers and expect them to follow the set guidelines. Other leaders are accommodating and therefore, give some level of independence to their employees, encourage teamwork, involve employee’s opinions in decision-making and often delegate duties. The X and Y theories are based on assumptions that human personality and behaviors differ and play a major role in determining the appropriate management styles to be applied. This paper focuses on the different management theories applied in managing different job types. The X theory by McGregor posits that management should intervene on the performance of its employees. This is by controlling their activities, altering their behaviors to guarantee their actions, are in line with wants of the organization, as well as inspiring them to ensure they direct all their effort towards progression of the organization (Fisher 12-17). The theory explain this by claiming that most human beings, hate responsibilities, dislike work, have no ambition, and thus require to be directed and sometimes threatened to work effectively. Another argument to support this theory is that people resist change, put their own needs above those of the organization, and value their security beyond all other things. Leaders using this theory in management frequently turn out to be autocratic (Stewart 2). The Y theory on the other hand, claims that people are not dormant and are always willing to direct their efforts towards the success of the organizations. However, the management is insensitive to their need of appropriate working environment. This would enable them grow individually and be in a position to contribute to organizational growth. The theory further argues that most employees prefer rewards to satisfy their self-esteem by encouraging them to be inventive, and imaginative other than work related rewards. Such rewards make the employee to feel secure and more committed to their work. Neither the X nor the Y theory is good or bad because they apply to different types of jobs and work settings. However when applied in wrong job settings, conflicts could arise in the management. Usage of theory Y by some managers can cause them loose control and being incapable of making final decisions as required. Theory Y could result in the manager being too judgmental on the doings of employees (Stewart 3). The X theory is applicable in a number of job types especially in the public service where organization structures obligate only those in higher administrative ranks to make and oversee implementation of policies. Revenue collection authorities are a good example of managements that follow the X theory. They fear that not only the citizens but also their employees may possibly cheat on them. They assume that employees are untrustworthy and thus try to monitor, supervise, and, control their operations. The employees end up wasting plenty of time writing reports to validate their decisions (Barnett web). They therefore, underperform, which emphasizes the manager’s mentality that they are incompetent. In military and most of the police departments, the superiors give orders that all those under them have to carry out without questioning their
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Not only did he speak the minds of millions of blacks and some whites around the nation, he also gave them courage to defend themselves and stand up for what they believe in. Furthermore, he created awareness of the negative effects that racial discrimination had in the world.
It is considered to be intrinsic or extrinsic. The whole concept of motivation is to maximize pleasure, whatever pleasure means to that person. Sometimes, pleasure can be learning or even just a promise of food. It should not be confused with emotion, although they are related to each other in a sense that motivation is used to elevate emotion.Understanding motivations is crucial in a management setting.
The author of the paper explains that in Theory X, the management has an assumption that the employees are innately lazy; thus, will circumvent work whenever they can. In addition, the employees avoid responsibility and have little or no ambition unless there is an enticing incentive program.
This implies that most of the work in industries was done by the people. The unskilled people performed the more labor-intensive activities while the skilled acted as their leaders or managers. The developer of the theory, Frederick Winslow Taylor believed that the main motivation at the workplace was monetary gains for all the employees.
Initially, Six Sigma had been employed pervasively in the manufacturing industry. This also stood true for lean techniques that were implemented in the manufacturing industry before their implementation elsewhere. However, of late both Six Sigma and lean techniques have been applied pervasively to the services industry (George, 2003).
The practice of human resource management (HRM) concerns how organizations manage and employ people. The activities covered in HRM include strategic HRM, human capital management, corporate social responsibility, knowledge management, organization development, resourcing, performance management, learning and development, reward management, employee relations, employee wellbeing, health and safety and provision of employee services.
Earl was assassinated in 1937 by the White Supremacists; this led to the disintegration of his family, and Malcom joined a Foster home.
Malcom dropped out of West Junior High School after his teacher crashed his hopes of being a lawyer. He
In addition, certain thoughts have been refined, added and behavioral scientists have stressed other vital thoughts. The centre of management action is the human behavior in an organization (Plunkett, Warren, & Attner, 2013).
Behavioral theory is concerned with
He introduced two expounded theories, “Theory X and Theory Y”. The Theory X assumes that individuals does not like working, they tend to avoid responsibilities and for that purpose they need to be controlled and supervised on each step of their work otherwise they will
responsible, self-compelled as well as self-controlled with an accepting attitude that naturally merges with the organizational objectives (McGregor, 2006).
No one particular style of management is best suited in all circumstances. Any large organization has many employees
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