NAME: COURSE CODE: TITLE: TUTOR; Variations of the approaches to VET systems In vocational education and training systems, different approaches have been developed: The voluntarist approach and the regulated one. A voluntarist approach in this case means a vocational system which aims at employability of individuals, while the regulated system focuses on the education of a person for occupation…
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The form of the given skills is determined both by the market mechanism and decisions taken by individuals in order to enhance their careers or income. In the second model, the VET is incorporated into an educational system or a school system that is comprehensively made up to develop professionals. Clearly, the systems Ashton (2004) has in mind in relation to the first type is the systems in the UK and US, while he allocates the second type to the dual system of VET in Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Denmark. It is useful to place these two models on two ends of a continuum from a system based on outcomes to one based on inputs. England lies on employability whilst Germany mostly on “vocational training”. In Germany, the VET systems are put more emphasis on employability with occupations becoming less rather than more delineated and less, rather than more specialised, in line with requirements of the knowledge economy, but also, with a central focus on the occupational mobility of the individual. In England, the opposite is true where there has been a narrowing down of skills. A strong led-demand system ensures the production of narrow sets of skills suited to a low –skilled labour market. ...
This contrasts sharply with the VET in England which has been criticised for neglecting general education (Harrison 2002). In addition, these systems are characterised by three important differences between them in terms of the balance between classroom and work place learning. It is only in Germany where a dual system that relies on integration of hypothetical knowledge with significant workplace experience can be found. On the other hand, there have been more advancement aimed at making Vocational Educational and training systems more practice-oriented. However, this contradicts with the English model which in the recent years has moved towards a ‘narrowing’ of skills dispensed with knowledge deemed unnecessary. The fact that it is difficult in the English language to differentiate types of knowing may reflect the suspicion with which abstract underpinning knowledge in VET has been treated in this country (Keep 2006). German distinguishes ‘knowing that’ or theoretical knowledge from ‘knowing how’ practical knowledge or know-how. In addition, the German language further distinguishes between systematic propositional knowledge and systematic propositional knowledge. Also, while in Germany, VET involves different types of knowledge to underpin practice in a rather broad occupational field, VET in England is aimed at acquiring task-specific skills with no or little underpinning knowledge. These types of knowledge are occupational, task-specific and industrial. Importantly, while skills in Germany are integral elements of holistic union, in England they are bundles of specific skills defined as learning outcomes of fragmented qualifications. The education system in
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