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The need theories of motivation are culturally based - Essay Example

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Running head: The Need Theories of Motivation are Culturally Based The Need Theories of Motivation are Culturally Based Insert Name Insert Grade Course Insert 7 September 2011 The Need Theories of Motivation are Culturally Based Introduction The need theories of motivation are based on our cultural beliefs and personal experiences in the general human life…
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The need theories of motivation are culturally based
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Download file to see previous pages David McClelland classifies the needs of motivation into three categories, which include the need for achievement, the need for affiliation, and the need for power. People are often motivated to work towards achieving organizational goals mainly because the activities satisfy important needs that they crave. The need to satisfy one’s shortcomings is the best motivating factor from within an individual that acts as a driving force in the organizational environment among employees. This principle of self-interest is often referred as what is in it for me (WIITFM) (Dubrin, 2011, p.391). However, the need theories of motivation are classified by Maslow as hierarchical. Needs are satisfied beginning from the lower basic needs towards higher needs to serve as motivating factors for employees. Once lower needs have been achieved, the need ceases to be a motivating factor and therefore higher needs must be provided to motivate the employees. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs states that the lowest needs are the primary needs for survival, which must first be satisfied, followed by the secondary needs such as the need for safety. The higher needs after primary and secondary needs include the need for love, sense of belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization (Milliken & Honeycutt, 2004, p.73). McClelland's Theory of Needs Acquired theories proposed by David McClelland state that individual's personal needs are gradually acquired over a period of time with respect to the cultures and life experiences with which individuals grow up with. In general, these acquired needs, according to David McClelland, are classified into the need for achievement, power, and affiliation. These theories are referred to as learned need theories that motivate and influence the efficiency and effectiveness of employees under the working environment they are subjected. The need for achievement influences people to have a strong desire to become excellent in whatever work they do and therefore have the tendency to evade tasks that are either high risk or low risk. Individuals with the need for achievement have the perception that low-risk tasks have no genuine success due to ease with which the success can be attained. These kinds of individuals’ tasks have fifty to fifty percent chance of success and may work best if periodically given a feedback concerning the progress of their success. Efficiency and effectiveness of high achievers may also be attained if they are given the chance to work alone or to work with highly successful individuals. The need for affiliation with other people may also improve effectiveness of employees if attained. Some individuals desire to have a harmonious relationship and feel accepted among the people they work with through conformity with norms of a work group. Individuals with a high need for affiliations are able to work well under working conditions that provide adequate personal interaction. Such needs fit best in working environments such as customer services and employee-to-employee interaction situations (Pynes, 2008). The need for power as a motivating factor exists in two categories: institutional and personal need. Individuals with the need for personal power have the tendency of directing others even if unnecessary, while individuals with th ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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