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Motivation and job performance - Essay Example

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Discuss the job performance model and compare and contrast Maslow's and McClelland's need theories. Job performance model focuses on motivation through job behaviors and performance. In this model, individual inputs like ability, knowledge, traits, emotions, beliefs and values have an impact on motivation…
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Motivation and job performance
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Running head: motivation. Motivation and Job Performance Discuss the job performance model and compare and contrast Maslow's and McClelland's need theories. Job performance model focuses on motivation through job behaviors and performance. In this model, individual inputs like ability, knowledge, traits, emotions, beliefs and values have an impact on motivation. Motivation is simultaneously impacted by job contexts that include physical environment, job design, rewards, leadership, social norms, and organizational culture. These two aspects influence individuals’ motivation, which further determines job performance. The most renowned needs theory is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, which proposes that motivation of human behaviour changes as per level of satisfaction. This means, the first order needs have to be satisfied in order for human being to be motivated by the next order needs. Components of this model, from lowest to the highest needs include physical needs, safety and security needs, social needs of love and belonging, esteem needs of respect and confidence, and finally self-actualization needs of knowledge and understanding. McClelland’s 3-needs theory identifies achievement, power and affiliation as the three motivational needs. Achievement corresponds to achievement of realistic and challenging goals that can help in job advancement. The need for power corresponds to the need for being influential as well as having authority to make impact. Affiliation corresponds to the need for friendship and interpersonal relationships that satisfy the need to be liked (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2009). 2. Review the Four Intrinsic Rewards underlying intrinsic motivation, how managers can cultivate motivation in others, and the causes and consequences of job satisfaction. The four intrinsic rewards underlying intrinsic motivation include sense of meaningfulness, sense of choice, sense of competence and sense of progress. These four rewards provide critical implications for managers to implement the right motivational practices. For example, sense of meaningfulness implies the extent of worthiness that an individual attaches to a specific task. Managers can make their subordinates understand the link between their expectations and organizational goals so that subordinates understand the significance of their contribution towards organizational success. Expectations may include learning, incentives, appreciation and/or recognition. Moreover, managers can create meaningfulness by helping employees identify their interests and creating an exciting working environment. Secondly, sense of choice implies the opportunity to choose an activity and perform it in a manner that the individual seems to be right. This means managers can give free hand to their subordinates in accomplishing specific tasks; managers can even delegate responsibilities and empower able employees to take critical decisions related to the task. This brings out creativity as well as enhances motivation. Thirdly, sense of competence implies feeling of doing high-quality work or work that is important; even empowerment helps in creating sense of competence as it challenges the employee’s skills and abilities. This gives the individual a feeling of importance when challenged with complicated tasks. Lastly, sense of progress implies achievement or completion of a task. Managers must acknowledge and recognize successful completion of tasks; in case of slow progress, coaching and training may be required (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2009). By creating meaningfulness, giving opportunity to be creative, accomplishing challenging tasks and progressing, managers can promote employee job satisfaction. 2. Describe the values model of work — family conflict. The values model of work-family conflict highlight causes for job dissatisfaction. When family-related values and work-related values do not complement each other, it can create significant work-family conflict. Secondly, when individual’s work values are not aligned to company’s values, then it can create work-family conflicts. Both situations cause job dissatisfaction and demotivation. References Kinicki, A and Kreitner, R. (2009). Organizational Behavior: key concepts, skills and best practices. New York: TataMcGraw Hill Inc. Read More
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