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Work environment - Essay Example

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Many experts note that organizations have been making greater use of teams in recent years. Greater awareness of the working environment, enhanced technology, and a corporate focus on decentralization all have contributed towards the use of teams in organizations…
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Download file to see previous pages This principle can also be applied to the use of new technology. The introduction of new technology requires better coordination in organizations to make use of the new technology. As managers have become aware of the benefits of shifting more responsibility to human resource departments within an organization, this has further led to decentralization and a greater emphasis on teamwork to get the job done. 1. Compare and contrast authority, responsibility, accountability, and delegation a. Authority belongs in the hands of a manager, whose job it is to come up with strategies, delegate responsibility, and use resources in an effective and efficient manner to achieve the objectives of the organization. Authority can be viewed from three view points: (1) Authority comes from structures within an organization, and not directly from people. (2) Authority must be respected by subordinates. This is shown by the acceptance theory of authority, which reasons that authority is only acquired by a leader if the subordinates follow commands given to them. (3) Authority is appropriate to the particular position involved. Employees higher up the food chain have greater authority than their subordinates. b.
b. Responsibility is authority given to carry out an order based on an employee’s position in the organizational hierarchy.
c. Accountability is where authority and responsibility meet.
d. Delegation is the way management chooses to assign responsibility to those lower than them in the organizational hierarchy. Most organizations encourage their managers to delegate authority to regular employees where possible so that the needs of customers are put first.
2. The divisional structure is often considered almost the opposite of a functional structure. Do you agree? Briefly explain the major differences in these two approaches to departmentalization.

The functional structure revolves around common skills, expertise, work activities, and resources. Human resources are pooled together in large functional departments in order to achieve economies of scale and in‑depth skill specialization and development. The efficient use of resources is what defines the functional structure.
The divisional structure is entirely different from the functional structure. The divisional structure focuses on product and division goals instead of functional skills and expertise. Despite this, divisional structures use functional departments within each division. Efficiency and economies of scale take a back seat to coordination among all departments and effectiveness in addressing the needs of customers. The key difference between these two structures is that the functional structure offers better efficiency internally but poor responsiveness, while the divisional structure is known for excellent responsiveness and poorer efficiency internally.
3. Define centralization and decentralization. Identify the three factors that typically influence centralization versus decentralization. What advantages does decentralization have over centralization?
1. Centralization and decentralization refer to the different levels of the hierarchy where key decisions are made and responsibility delegated.

2. Centralization means most of the major decisions come from top management (otherwise known as top-down approach). ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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