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"3.Define foreign direct investment (FDI). Discuss and evaluate five different effects (positive and negative) that FDI can have on host country economies"
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This assignment will cover the definition and effects of foreign direct investment on the host country’s economy.
Foreign direct investment refers to a form of investment, where a company from one country decides to make a physical investment in another country by putting up an industrial unit in another country. The direct investment in machinery, buildings and equipment contrasts a portfolio investment that is considered as making an indirect investment (Gregory 1997, p. 33). Currently, with the rapid growth and transformations in global investment patterns, the definition has widened to include the acquirement of a lasting management interest in an entity outside the investing company’s home country. Going by this definition, therefore, Foreign Direct Investment may take various forms such as; direct acquisition of a foreign entity, building of a facility, or investing in a joint venture with a local firm.
One of the principal effects of the foreign direct investment is diffusion of technology. A foreign direct investment encourages the entity seeking investment in the foreign country to use different technologies in the production process (Razin 2008, p. 64). The firm uses its own technology in buildings and the way of doing business. In so doing, people in the host country acquire new technologies and skills from the foreign entity, which they apply in the production process. Use of the acquired skills and technology in the production process assist the host country increase its productivity. Through the increment in production, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the host country is increased considerably, which promotes economic growth (Moran 2005, p. 64).
FDI provides the host country with increased physical stock. The increase in the physical stock increases the productivity rate of the host country. This adds up to the country’s income. In addition, the FDI provides the host country with finances for investment, which adds up to
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Foreign Direct Investment is generally defined as investment of funds in a company of one country (host country), by a company of another country (home/investing/source country). A few years back, these funds were defined as direct investments in the form of buildings, machinery and equipment, but now with the changed and increased role of technology; the definition has been broadened to include investments in the form of acquisitions of management interest in an entity outside the investor’s home country.
The current research suggests that the effects of FDI on economic growth are complex. Their scope and magnitude depend on a number of factors, including the amount of knowledge capital, the complexity of R&D procedures, and even host countries’ financial market size. Current knowledge of FDI and its impacts on economic growth is mainly theoretical.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review 91(2), pp. 61-78. Dimelis, S. and Louri, H. Foreign Direct Investment and Technology Spillovers: Which Firms Really Benefit? [Online]. Available at: http://www.aueb.gr/imop/papers/DP149.pdf [Accessed on: 04 January 2013].
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) came in the form of capital, and organizational knowledge. The MNCs from developed countries started investing in the emerging economies and brought with them technology, management skills and expertise. Knowing the impact of FDI is challenging because data collection on reinvested earnings is difficult as most organizations do not report on this element.
FDI can also be defined as an investment of a company in a foreign country by building a factory within the host country. It is through a company’s direct investment in machinery, building and equipment in another country that foreign direct investment is made possible.
Inward FDI increased from 9.6% of GDP in 1990 to 26.7% in 2006. (Woodward, 2011). There has also been a recent flow of FDI towards developing economies and this has had a plethora of effects, both for home and host countries. (Raj and Sager, 2005). Foreign Direct Investment has over the last three decades aroused conflicting responses from the first and third world.
It can be defined as the purchasing of commodities from a domestic economy by a foreign entity or an investment from an overseas enterprise into another in a distant business or economy. Regardless of the development of commodities and trade with India and China, Sub Saharan Africa’s (SSA’s) economic performance has been quite poor in comparison with East Asia or South East where FDI has played significant role in economic development (Bartels, Kratzsch, and Eicher, 2008, p.1).
Some of these countries became full European Union (EU) members in May 2004. They also experienced a significant increase in foreign direct investment (FDI). As a consequence, the ratio of inward FDI stock to the 12 CEE countries studied here in total world inward FDI stock increased more than three-fold, from 0.81% in 1994 to 2.89% in 2004.
realist point of view, instability is prevalent in some countries as they attempt to join the global market being the main cause; however, a liberal’s argument on the matter is more rational because it depends on local strategies that extend to the international environment.
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