China has been about leadership succession throughout its history.Each generation of Chinese leaders bring with it a change in the just about everything that is occurring from politics to art and certainly involving all of the cultural aspects. This remains true when the fourth generation arrives …
Download file to see previous pages...
This paper will discuss chapter 12 and the Fourth Generation.Shortly after Jiang Zemen and his 3rd generation of leaders took over power from Den Xiaopeng and other revolutionaries, China began to face a new political succession. Most of the 3rd generation were in their 70's at the time. The New Generation of leaders is important because when the Fourth Generation took over it changed everything including the top ministry level throughout the country. This was very much a cultural revolution. Unfortunately there are many things that we do not know as there have not been many studies related to this generation.This generation of leaders grew up believing in Mao. They later found that their idolism was shattered as they became better educated and began to understand the issues. They, however, acquired political skills as a habit of having a chance to think independently. This is a generation that on top of all of that has bore the burden of what is called the cultural generation as well as paying the cost of the reform movement. The reform is really two China's which is confusing to the rest of the world as well as the Chinese.Officially this is a nation of patriots not nationalists. The Party is the embodiment and object of patriotic sentiment. This is meant to make China strong and gain and hold its rightful place in the world. However, even with all of this happening, one must remember that the history of China is rooted in the earlier generations and official discourse. This is all very much linked to the Communist Party.
The "Motherland" or China has had many periods in its history of invasion by foreign powers. Many lost their lives in these wars and there were many martyrs for the country. The Party used Marxism-Leninism to bring the country together. They used this to show the fate of the nation and its people and the same time point out the correct direction and path for strengthening their country and making it stronger economically. This has all proven to be quite successful.
The success of the country now, of course, is because of the Party and it is centre in the economic development. This has all brought about a new generation of leadership which is called the Fourth generation. There are some pretty specific characteristics about this leadership group.
Often called the "Cultural Revolution" generation. All experienced CR either as recent graduates or whilst still at university. Only Li Changchun temporarily involved in Red Guard activities, then neutral. Most avoided participation or were criticized for siding with the authorities.
Few had studied or travelled overseas before rising to prominence - viz. Hu Jintao's recent visit to Europe and the eager anticipation surrounding his visit to US
Experience of provinces, particularly some of China's poorest - Hu Jintao in Gansu, Guizhou and Tibet - Wen in Gansu - Li Changchun and Luo Gan in Henan. Focus on poverty/economic development - both evident for example in Wen's role in agriculture.
Closely involved with economic reforms/associations with most reform-minded sections of CCP from 1980s - Hu Jintao headed the Chinese Communist Youth League, Wen Jiabao worked with Zhao Ziyang - Li Changchun's record in Liaoning where he authorized China's first bankruptcy and defended this policy against criticism.
First post-revolutionary generation - will this lead them to place less emphasis on the glories of the Party's past/be less hide-bound by official ideology - Role of Central Party School/Organization Department in "Three representatives" campaign
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
(“Modernization and revolution in China from the opium wars to world Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/macro-microeconomics/1504503-modernization-and-revolution-in-china-from-the-opium-wars-to-world-power
(Modernization and Revolution in China from the Opium Wars to World Essay)
“Modernization and Revolution in China from the Opium Wars to World Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/macro-microeconomics/1504503-modernization-and-revolution-in-china-from-the-opium-wars-to-world-power.
World Water Wars. Changing our perception Since our childhood we have always perceived water as an infinite resource which will never dry up or cease to exist. In our primary school we are taught the water cycle that according to our text books will go on for an eternity and is a never ending process.
During this period Europeans profited from the opium trade through trade in the Chinese ports of Zhoushan, Xiamen, and Guangzhou (Fairbank). After this early period, European trade in the region would greatly expand as the Quing dynasty lifted many trade restrictions.
Since a war involves an engagement with the enemy, the plan made by one party may fail, since the planning is done without full information regarding the status of the enemy. This is worsened by war propaganda and military misinformation techniques applied, which serve to represent the enemy in a way that is different from the reality (Ross, 41).
For the entire 20th century, he estimates 130-142 million war-related deaths and a chilling 214-226 million if government killings in non-war situations are included." In the 1950s, the globe averaged 13 wars each year. In the 1960s, the globe averaged 19 wars each year.
Within the sphere of world politics taking into consideration the experience of interstate wars, civil wars and armed interventions, war is generally associated with the use of force. Force is defined as the use of military capabilities to coerce other states or actors against their will.1
According to the article, China feared for the health and wellbeing of their citizens, as well as their treasury, and; thus, they opted to ban the importation of opium to their nation. Britain, proclaiming the idea of free trade, rejected China’s proposal, which made the nation appear as if it is being ruled by foreigners or it is a British colony.
Indeed, very few attempts were made to modernise this country prior to the 1970s under the leadership of President Deng Xiaopang.
One of the reasons for Chinese relatively slow path to modernisation was based on its belief in Confusian
According to the report even though British imperialism never politically established itself in mainland China as was the case in Africa and India, it had a huge cultural and political impact. Hong Kong is still a global hub of finance and its government still works in the same manner it did under British colonialism.
Modernization is a dynamic process that regions or nations undergo to change from old ways and adopt new improved techniques for viewing, reasoning and carrying out their lifestyles. Significantly, modernization takes place in phases because discoveries and innovations are progressive events, which keep on improving.
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Modernization and revolution in China from the opium wars to world power for FREE!